University of Oulu

Markkula, J. & Haapola, J. Wireless Pers Commun (2018) 98: 3355-3375.

Ad hoc LTE method for resilient smart grid communications

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Author: Markkula, Juho1; Haapola, Jussi1
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-01-30


LTE network is a good choice for delivering smart grid demand response (DR) traffic. However, LTE connectivity is not pervasively available due to smart meter improper positioning, limited of coverage, or base station software or hardware failures. In this paper, a solution is introduced to overcome issues relating to lack of LTE base station connectivity for user equipment (UE) considered as remote terminal units, i.e. communication interfaces connected to smart meters. The solution is an ad hoc mode for the LTE-Advanced UE. The ad hoc mode is applied to reach a relay node that is the nearest UE with base station connection. DR traffic is delivered between clusters of UEs and a relay node using multi-hop communications. Analytical Markov chain models and a Riverbed Modeler network simulation model are implemented to illustrate the functionalities and the performance when DR traffic is delivered with varying transmission power levels. A detailed physical layer propagation model for device-to-device communications, a static resource allocation in time domain, hybrid automatic repeat request retransmissions, and a capability for a UE to receive uplink transmissions are modeled both analytically and in the simulator. Both the disjoint analysis and simulations show that all packets are successfully transmitted at most with the fourth transmission attempt and the average network delay is low enough to support most of the smart grid DR applications (139.2–546.6 ms).

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Series: Wireless personal communications
ISSN: 0929-6212
ISSN-E: 1572-834X
ISSN-L: 0929-6212
Volume: 98
Issue: 4
Pages: 3355 - 3375
DOI: 10.1007/s11277-017-5018-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This paper presents work undertaken in the context of the P2P-SMARTEST project, Peer to Peer Smart Energy Distribution Networks (, an Innovation Action funded by the H2020 Programme, contract number 646469.
EU Grant Number: (646469) P2P-SmarTest - Peer to Peer Smart Energy Distribution Networks (P2P-SmartTest)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2017. Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.