University of Oulu

Suopajärvi, H., Umeki, K., Mousa, E., Hedayati, A., Romar, H., Kemppainen, A., Wang, C., Phounglamcheik, A., Tuomikoski, S., Norberg, N., Andefors, A., Öhman, M., Lassi, U., Fabritius, T. (2018) Use of biomass in integrated steelmaking – Status quo, future needs and comparison to other low-CO 2 steel production technologies. Applied Energy, 213, 384-407. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.01.060

Use of biomass in integrated steelmaking : status quo, future needs and comparison to other low-CO₂ steel production technologies

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Author: Suopajärvi, Hannu1; Umeki, Kentaro2; Mousa, Elsayed3;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu
2Energy Engineering, Division of Energy Science, Luleå University of Technology
3Swerea MEFOS, Process Integration Department
4Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu
5Future Eco North Sweden AB
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2020-01-28


This paper provides a fundamental and critical review of biomass application as a reducing agent and fuel in integrated steelmaking. The basis for the review is derived from the current process and product quality requirements that also biomass-derived fuels should fulfill. The availability and characteristics of different sources of biomass are discussed and suitable pretreatment technologies for their upgrading are evaluated. The existing literature concerning biomass application in bio-coke making, blast furnace injection, iron ore sintering and production of carbon composite agglomerates is reviewed and research gaps filled by providing insights and recommendations to the unresolved challenges. Several possibilities to integrate the production of biomass-based reducing agents with existing industrial infrastructures to lower the cost and increase the total efficiency are given. A comparison of technical challenges and CO₂ emission reduction potential between biomass-based steelmaking and other emerging technologies to produce low-CO₂ steel is made.

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Series: Applied energy
ISSN: 0306-2619
ISSN-E: 1872-9118
ISSN-L: 0306-2619
Volume: 213
Pages: 384 - 407
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.01.060
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
218 Environmental engineering
222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was conducted as a part of the RENEPRO project (20200224) funded by Interreg Nord. H. Suopajärvi would also like to acknowledge the funding received from Tekes – the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation through a project: Added Value for Forest Industry for Metals Producing and Processing Integrates–FORMET (Dnro 7182/31/2016).
Copyright information: © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license