University of Oulu

Sepideh Kiani, Masoud Irannezhad, Anna-Kaisa Ronkanen, Hamid Moradkhani, Bjørn Kløve, Effects of recent temperature variability and warming on the Oulu-Hailuoto ice road season in the northern Baltic Sea, Cold Regions Science and Technology, Volume 151, July 2018, Pages 1-8, ISSN 0165-232X,

Effects of recent temperature variability and warming on the Oulu-Hailuoto ice road season in the northern Baltic Sea

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Author: Kiani, Sepideh1; Irannezhad, Masoud1,2; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa1;
Organizations: 1Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90014, Finland
2School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
3Center for Complex Hydrosystems Research, Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2020-03-06


In cold climate regions, ice roads are engineered as temporary winter transportation routes on frozen lakes, rivers and seas. The ice road season start, end and duration principally depend upon ice thickness, which is controlled by surface air temperature (SAT) in terms of freezing and thawing degree-days (FDD and TDD, respectively). Both FDD and TDD are indicators of climate variability and change, and are naturally influenced by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs). This study examined the role of ACPs in interannual variations in the operating season of the Oulu-Hailuoto ice road in the Bay of Bothnia, northern Baltic Sea, during 1974–2009. Significant (p < 0.05) shortening in duration of the ice road season, mainly attributable to later start and earlier end days, was observed. In the Oulu-Hailuoto area, maximum ice thickness showed significant declines over time. This sea ice thinning was associated with SAT warming in cold months, manifested by statistically significant decreases in cumulative FDD during October–January within the water year (September–August). Significant increases in cumulative TDD during February–April, reflecting warmer SAT in mild months, resulted in earlier end day for the Oulu-Hailuoto ice road season. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) was the most influential ACP for variations in cumulative FDD (October–January), and accordingly for sea ice thickness and start day of the Oulu-Hailuoto ice road season. However, cumulative TDD (February–April) showed significant positive correlations with the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, which also controlled the end day of the Oulu-Hailuoto ice road season.

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Series: Cold regions science and technology
ISSN: 0165-232X
ISSN-E: 1872-7441
ISSN-L: 0165-232X
Volume: 151
Pages: 1 - 8
DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.02.010
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This study was funded by the Finnish Cultural Foundation (grant no. 00150291) and Maa-ja vesitekniikan tuki r.y (grant no. 35884).
Copyright information: © 2018 Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license