University of Oulu

Solismaa, S. et al. 2018 Valorization of Finnish mining tailings for use in the ceramics industry. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Vol. 90, 2018, pp 33–54,

Valorization of Finnish mining tailings for use in the ceramics industry

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Author: Solismaa, Soili1; Ismailov, Arnold2; Karhu, Marjaana3;
Organizations: 1Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), P.O. Box 1237, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
2Tampere University of Technology (TUT), P.O. Box 599, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
3Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd (VTT), P.O. Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
4University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), P.O. Box 96, FI-02151, Espoo, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: The Geological Society of Finland, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-03-19


The present study valorized Finnish mining tailings waste to identify opportunities for the use of ceramics technologies. On the basis of their mineralogical and chemical contents, the five selected tailings wastes represented felsic mining tailings (FMT) rich in quartz and alkali feldspars, mining tailings dominated by Mg- and Fe-bearing minerals (MgFeMT), and mining tailings rich in carbonate minerals (CMT). Preliminary pilot studies indicated that the FMT materials are potential secondary raw materials for mullite-type ceramics. An Al additive was needed, since the Al₂O₃ content of the studied tailings was too low for mullitization. In addition, carbonate-bearing tailings with Ca silicates can be applicable for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) synthesis. Based on a literature review, FMT are viable source materials for the production of geopolymers, but a high initial Si:Al ratio (in quartz-rich FMT) may lead to partial geopolymerization. Preliminary results from the geopolymerization of pre-heated phlogopite mica mixed with metakaolin gave promising findings, with the formation of a geopolymer having good compressive strength. The findings support the viability of MgFeMT materials rich in phlogopite mica for the production of alkali-activated ceramics

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Series: Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland
ISSN: 0367-5211
ISSN-E: 1799-4632
ISSN-L: 0367-5211
Volume: 90
Issue: 1
Pages: 33 - 54
DOI: 10.17741/bgsf/90.1.002
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
222 Other engineering and technologies
216 Materials engineering
219 Environmental biotechnology
Funding: We thank the Academy of Finland for funding the Ceratail project in Mineral Resources and Material Substitution program and thereby supporting this work.
Copyright information: © 2018 The Authors. All published content of BGSF is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License