Adesanya, E., Ohenoja, K., Luukkonen, T., Kinnunen, P., Illikainen, M. (2018) One-part geopolymer cement from slag and pretreated paper sludge. Journal of Cleaner Production, 185 (), 168-175. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.007
One-part geopolymer cement from slag and pretreated paper sludge
|Author:||Adesanya, Elijah1; Ohenoja, Katja1; Luukkonen, Tero1;|
1Faculty of Technology, Fiber and Particle Engineering Unit, University of Oulu
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe201803206097
|Publish Date:|| 2018-03-20
The aim of this study was the valorization of paper sludge waste from paper industry in designing one-part geopolymer cement using ground granulated blast furnace slag as main precursor. The effects of increasing the amount of paper sludge pretreated with a constant amount of sodium hydroxide (2% of slag) on mechanical strength, heat evolution, setting time and durability were analyzed. The reaction products were characterized using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The findings showed that paper sludge can successfully be used as a secondary source of calcium carbonate in the one-part (“just add water”) geopolymer. The compressive strength of the cured geopolymer increased with increasing the amount of paper sludge, and the non-reacted sludge acted as a filler. The maximum strength (42 MPa, 28 d) was reached at 18 wt-% paper sludge addition. The main reaction products were calcium aluminate silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite-like cementitious gels. From the perspective of its blast-furnace slag content, strength properties, water absorption and setting time, the one-part geopolymer cement could be classified as a CEM IIIC and Type 32.5N class cement under the European standard EN-197.
Journal of cleaner production
|Pages:||168 - 175|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
212 Civil and construction engineering
The research was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (A70189) under the auspices of the MINSI project and the following companies: SSAB Europe Oy, Ekokem Oy, Stora Enso Oy, Pohjolan Voima Oy and Oulun Energia.
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open Access funded by the author(s). Under a Creative Commons license.