University of Oulu

Adesanya, E., Ohenoja, K., Luukkonen, T., Kinnunen, P., Illikainen, M. (2018) One-part geopolymer cement from slag and pretreated paper sludge. Journal of Cleaner Production, 185 (), 168-175. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.007

One-part geopolymer cement from slag and pretreated paper sludge

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Author: Adesanya, Elijah1; Ohenoja, Katja1; Luukkonen, Tero1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Fiber and Particle Engineering Unit, University of Oulu
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-03-20


The aim of this study was the valorization of paper sludge waste from paper industry in designing one-part geopolymer cement using ground granulated blast furnace slag as main precursor. The effects of increasing the amount of paper sludge pretreated with a constant amount of sodium hydroxide (2% of slag) on mechanical strength, heat evolution, setting time and durability were analyzed. The reaction products were characterized using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The findings showed that paper sludge can successfully be used as a secondary source of calcium carbonate in the one-part (“just add water”) geopolymer. The compressive strength of the cured geopolymer increased with increasing the amount of paper sludge, and the non-reacted sludge acted as a filler. The maximum strength (42 MPa, 28 d) was reached at 18 wt-% paper sludge addition. The main reaction products were calcium aluminate silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite-like cementitious gels. From the perspective of its blast-furnace slag content, strength properties, water absorption and setting time, the one-part geopolymer cement could be classified as a CEM IIIC and Type 32.5N class cement under the European standard EN-197.

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Series: Journal of cleaner production
ISSN: 0959-6526
ISSN-E: 1879-1786
ISSN-L: 0959-6526
Volume: 185
Pages: 168 - 175
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.007
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
212 Civil and construction engineering
Funding: The research was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (A70189) under the auspices of the MINSI project and the following companies: SSAB Europe Oy, Ekokem Oy, Stora Enso Oy, Pohjolan Voima Oy and Oulun Energia.
Copyright information: © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open Access funded by the author(s). Under a Creative Commons license.