University of Oulu

Huikari, J., Jahromi, S., Jansson, J., Kostamovaara, J. (2018) Compact laser radar based on a subnanosecond laser diode transmitter and a two-dimensional CMOS single-photon receiver. Optical Engineering, 57 (02), 1. doi:10.1117/1.OE.57.2.024104

Compact laser radar based on a subnanosecond laser diode transmitter and a two-dimensional CMOS single-photon receiver

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Author: Huikari, Jaakko1; Jahromi, Sahba1; Jansson, Jussi-Pekka1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Circuits and Systems Research Group, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: SPIE, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-04-12


A pulsed TOF laser radar utilizing the single-photon detection mode has been implemented, and its performance is characterized. The transmitter employs a QW double-heterostructure laser diode producing 0.6 nJ∕100 ps laser pulses at a central wavelength of ∼810 nm. The detector is a single-chip IC manufactured in the standard 0.35-μmHV CMOS process, including a 9 × 9 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array and a 10-channel time-to-digital converter (TDC) circuit. Both the SPAD array and the TDC circuit support a time gating feature allowing photon detection to occur only within a predefined time window. The SPAD array also supports a 3 × 3 SPADs subarray selection feature to respond to the laser spot wandering effect due to the paraxial optics and to reduce background radiation-induced detections. The characterization results demonstrate a distance measurement accuracy of þ∕ − 0.5 mm to a target at 34 m having 11% reflectivity. The signal detection rate is 28% at a laser pulsing rate of 100 kHz. The single-shot precision of the laser radar is ∼20 mm (FWHM). The deteriorating impact of high-level background radiation conditions on the SNR is demonstrated, as also is a scheme to improve this by means of detector time gating.

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Series: Optical engineering
ISSN: 0091-3286
ISSN-E: 1560-2303
ISSN-L: 0091-3286
Volume: 57
Issue: 2
Article number: 024104
DOI: 10.1117/1.OE.57.2.024104
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Contract No. 272196 and Contracts Nos. 255359, 283075, and 251571); Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation (TEKES). The authors wish to express their gratitude to both the Academy of Finland and TEKES for supporting this work.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 255359
Detailed Information: 255359 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
283075 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
251571 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. [DOI: 10.1117/1.OE.57.2.024104].