University of Oulu

Gulevich V.P., Hautala R. A Little-known Source on the Embassy of Sigismund of Luxemburg to Caffa in 1412. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2018. Vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 199–211. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2018-6-1.199-211

A little-known source on the embassy of Sigismund of Luxemburg to Caffa in 1412 (in Russian)

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Author: Gulevich, V.P.1; Hautala, R.2,3
Organizations: 1Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Kiev, Ukraine
2Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences Kazan, Russian Federation
3University of Oulu Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-04-12


This article contains the text of a letter from the Hungarian and German king, Sigismund of Luxemburg, to the commune of Caffa, a Genoese colony in Crimea. In his struggle against Venice, the king hoped for the help of Genoa, which competed with the Republic of Venice in the Levantine trade. To undermine Venetian trade routes, Sigismund hoped to both establish contact with the Horde’s khan, Jalal ad-Din, with the mediation of Caffa’s administration, and to restore the transit trade of expensive Oriental goods from China to the Danube and further into Hungary and Germany. To this end, an official Hungarian embassy was sent to Caffa in 1412. The letter rather meagerly reflects the opinion of the king regarding the distant Horde and its rulers. However, the circumstances of the embassy make it possible to understand the broader European context of Sigismund’s eastern policy, which in one way or another affected Genoa, the Ottoman Empire, and the Polish Kingdom. The published source is of considerable interest to researchers of the history of the Horde, the Crimea, and the Genoese colony of Caffa, taking into account the fact that Sigismund tried to implement his anti-Venetian plan in 1418 and possibly once again between 1419 and 1428, and given the scarcity of information on the Hungarian-Tatar relations in the early fifteenth century. Thus, this article contains the Latin text of the letter and its Russian translation as well as an introduction which highlights the context of events both in Hungary and the distant Venetian colony of Tana (Tatar: Azaq), located at the mouth of the Don.

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Series: Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie
ISSN: 2308-152X
ISSN-E: 2313-6197
ISSN-L: 2308-152X
Volume: 6
Issue: 1
Pages: 199 - 211
DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2018-6-1.199-211
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 615 History and archaeology
Copyright information: © Гулевич В.П., Хаутала Р., 2018. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.