University of Oulu

Kaján, Eva (2017) Hate online : anti-immigration rhetoric in Darknet. In (Prokkola & Lankila eds.) NGP Yearbook 2017 Everyday security and inequality in internationalizing Finland, Nordia Geographical Publications 46: 3, 3–22.

Hate online : anti-immigration rhetoric in Darknet

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Author: Kaján, Eva1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Pohjois-Suomen Maantieteellinen Seura, 2017
Publish Date: 2018-04-13


The worsening conditions in the Middle-East and Sub-Saharan Africa have resulted in millions of asylum seekers entering the European Union. Also, Finland received over ten times more asylum seekers in 2015 than the previous years. The irregular migration has generated many public discussions and demonstrations at the local and national level against and for asylum seekers. Furthermore, online hate speech has increased and intensified. This research examines how asylum seekers are portrayed in a discussion forum inside Darknet. The results show that this forum holds three distinct hate-related themes when discussing asylum seekers. These were related to imported violence, economics and cultural identity. Hate speech is targeted towards very specific ethnic groups and religion(s), which resonate the current geopolitical situation in Finland concerning asylum seekers. In addition, hate extends beyond asylum seekers into Finnish society, where it’s expressed as negative speech towards the authorities and pro-immigration movement. The results also indicate that despite the Darknet’s reputation of being an unregulated online space, there are some rules, which guide the dialogues.

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Series: Nordia geographical publications
ISSN: 1238-2086
ISSN-E: 2736-9722
ISSN-L: 1238-2086
ISBN Print: 978-952-62-1785-7
Volume: 46
Issue: 3
Pages: 3 - 22
Host publication: NGP yearbook 2017 : everyday security and inequality in internationalizing Finland
Host publication editor: Prokkola, Eeva-Kaisa
Lankila, Tiina
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 519 Social and economic geography
Copyright information: © 2017 The Author. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).