University of Oulu

Julin, A.; Jaalama, K.; Virtanen, J.-P.; Pouke, M.; Ylipulli, J.; Vaaja, M.; Hyyppä, J.; Hyyppä, H. Characterizing 3D City Modeling Projects: Towards a Harmonized Interoperable System. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 55. doi:10.3390/ijgi7020055

Characterizing 3D city modeling projects : towards a harmonized interoperable system

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Author: Julin, Arttu1; Jaalama, Kaisa1; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka1,2;
Organizations: 1Aalto University School of Engineering, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
2Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala, Finland
3Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Erkki Koiso-Kanttilankatu 3, Door E, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-04-16


3D city models have become common geospatial data assets for cities that can be utilized in numerous fields, in tasks related to planning, visualization, and decision-making among others. We present a study of 3D city modeling focusing on the six largest cities in Finland. The study portrays a contradiction between the realized 3D city modeling projects and the expectations towards them: models do not appear to reach the broad applicability envisioned. In order to deal with contradiction and to support the development of future 3D city models, characteristics of different operational cultures in 3D city modeling are presented, and a concept for harmonizing the 3D city modeling is suggested.

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Series: ISPRS international journal of geo-information
ISSN: 2220-9964
ISSN-E: 2220-9964
ISSN-L: 2220-9964
Volume: 7
Issue: 2
Article number: 55
DOI: 10.3390/ijgi7020055
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
520 Other social sciences
Funding: This research project was supported by the Academy of Finland, the Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research (CoE-LaSR) (No. 272195, 307362), “Competence-Based Growth Through Integrated Disruptive Technologies of 3D Digitalization, Robotics, Geospatial Information and Image Processing/Computing–Point Cloud Ecosystem”, (No. 293389), the Aalto Energy Efficiency Research Programme (Light Energy—Efficient and Safe Traffic Environments project), the EUE project (2141226), the European Regional Development Fund “Leverage from the EU 2014–2020” projects “Soludus” (301192), “Open Innovation Platforms” (A70202) and “AKAI” (301130), the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation project “VARPU” (7031/31/2016), and the Aalto University Doctoral programme.
Copyright information: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (