University of Oulu

Noroozi, O., Kirschner, P.A., Biemans, H.J. et al. Educ Psychol Rev (2018) 30: 153.

Promoting argumentation competence : extending from first- to second-order scaffolding through adaptive fading

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Author: Noroozi, Omid1,2; Kirschner, Paul A.3,4; Biemans, Harm J.A.2;
Organizations: 1Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands
3Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, the Netherlands
4University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-04-16


Argumentation is fundamental for many learning assignments, ranging from primary school to university and beyond. Computer-supported argument scaffolds can facilitate argumentative discourse along with concomitant interactive discussions among learners in a group (i.e., first-order argument scaffolding). However, there is no evidence, and hence no knowledge, of whether such argument scaffolds can help students acquire argumentation competence that can be transferred by the students themselves to various similar learning tasks (i.e., second-order argument scaffolding). Therefore, this conceptual article argues that the focus of argument scaffold design and research should be expanded: from the study of first-order scaffolding alone to including the study of second-order scaffolding as well. On the basis of the Script Theory of Guidance (SToG), this paper presents a guideline for second-order argument scaffolding using diagnosis of the student’s internal argumentative script and offering adaptive external support and various fading mechanisms. It also explains how to complement adaptive fading support with peer assessment, automatic response tools, and adaptable self-assessment to ensure that learners actually understand, learn, and apply targeted argumentation activities in similar situations.

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Series: Educational psychology review
ISSN: 1040-726X
ISSN-E: 1573-336X
ISSN-L: 1040-726X
Volume: 30
Issue: 1
Pages: 153 - 176
DOI: 10.1007/s10648-017-9400-z
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.