University of Oulu

Tero Luukkonen, Zahra Abdollahnejad, Juho Yliniemi, Paivo Kinnunen, Mirja Illikainen, Comparison of alkali and silica sources in one-part alkali-activated blast furnace slag mortar, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 187, 2018, Pages 171-179, ISSN 0959-6526,

Comparison of alkali and silica sources in one-part alkali-activated blast furnace slag mortar

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Author: Luukkonen, Tero1; Abdollahnejad, Zahra1; Yliniemi, Juho1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, P.O. Box 8000, FI 90014, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-04-17


Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are one of the alternative low-CO₂ binders. One-part AAMs, (that is, mixing a solid precursor with a solid alkali activator and adding water) have recently attracted increasing interest. The purpose of this study is to examine if fast-dissolving solid synthetic sodium metasilicate could be replaced by a combination of sodium hydroxide and slow-dissolving silica derived from rice husk ash or microsilica in the preparation of one-part alkali-activated blast furnace slag mortar. The replacement would improve the carbon footprint and the cost efficiency of the binder. The results demonstrate that silica availability significantly affects compressive strength development as a function of time or mixture composition. The highest compressive strength (107 MPa, 28 d) was obtained with fast-dissolving silica. Furthermore, setting times could be adjusted based on the mix composition, and the durability of mortar remained good after 120 freezeethaw cycles. The results highlight the overall effect of silica availability on the fresh and hardened properties of one-part AAMs.

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Series: Journal of cleaner production
ISSN: 0959-6526
ISSN-E: 1879-1786
ISSN-L: 0959-6526
Volume: 187
Pages: 171 - 179
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.202
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes) (project GEOBIZ, grant number 1105/31/2016).
Dataset Reference: Supplementary data related to this article can be found at
Copyright information: © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (