University of Oulu

Juho Antti Sirviö, Cationization of lignocellulosic fibers with betaine in deep eutectic solvent: Facile route to charge stabilized cellulose and wood nanofibers, Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 198, 15 October 2018, Pages 34-40, ISSN 0144-8617,

Cationization of lignocellulosic fibers with betaine in deep eutectic solvent : facile route to charge stabilized cellulose and wood nanofibers

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Author: Sirviö, Juho Antti1
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-06-13


In this study, a deep eutectic solvent (DES [based on triethylmethylammonium chloride (TEMA) and imidazole]) was used as a reaction medium for cationization of cellulose fibers with trimethylglycine (betaine) hydrochloride in the presence of p-Toluenesulfonyl (tosyl) chloride. Cellulose betaine ester with a cationic charge up to 1.95 mmol/g was obtained at mild reaction conditions (four hours at 80 °C). The reaction was further demonstrated in the fabrication of cationic cellulose nanofibers (CCNFs) by a mild mechanical disintegration of cationized cellulose. In addition to CCNFs, cationic wood nanofibers (CWNFs) were produced directly from groundwood pulp (GWP) with a high lignin content (27 w%). Individualized CCNFs and CWNFs had a fiber diameter of 4.7 ± 2.0 and 3.6 ± 1.3 nm, respectively, whereas some larger fiber aggregates (diameter below 200 nm) were also observed, especially in the case of CWNFs.

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Series: Carbohydrate polymers
ISSN: 0144-8617
ISSN-E: 1879-1344
ISSN-L: 0144-8617
Volume: 198
Pages: 34 - 40
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.06.051
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
Dataset Reference: Supplementary material related to this article can be found, in the online version, at doi: .
Copyright information: © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license