University of Oulu

Koldobskiy, S.A., Kovaltsov, G.A. & Usoskin, I.G. Sol Phys (2018) 293: 110.

Effective rigidity of a polar neutron monitor for recording ground-level enhancements

Saved in:
Author: Koldobskiy, Sergey A.1,2; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.3; Usoskin, Ilya G.1,4
Organizations: 1Space Climate Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
2National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
3Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
4Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-07-25


The “effective” rigidity of a neutron monitor for a ground-level enhancement (GLE) event is defined so that the event-integrated fluence of solar energetic protons with rigidity above it is directly proportional to the integral intensity of the GLE as recorded by a polar neutron monitor, within a wide range of solar energetic-proton spectra. This provides a direct way to assess the integral fluence of a GLE event based solely on neutron-monitor data. The effective rigidity/energy was found to be 1.13 – 1.42 GV (550 – 800 MeV). A small model-dependent, systematic uncertainty in the value of the effective rigidity is caused by uncertainties in the low-energy range of the neutron-monitor yield function, which requires more detailed computations of the latter.

see all

Series: Solar physics
ISSN: 0038-0938
ISSN-E: 1573-093X
ISSN-L: 0038-0938
Volume: 293
Article number: 110
DOI: 10.1007/s11207-018-1326-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was partially supported by the ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence (Academy of Finland, project 272157). S.A. Koldobskiy acknowledges grant no. MK-6160.2018.2 of the President of the Russian Federation and MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (contract 02.a03.21.0005).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 272157
Detailed Information: 272157 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © Springer Nature B.V. 2018. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Solar Physics. The final authenticated version is available online at: