University of Oulu

Yla-Herttuala, E., Laidinen, S., Laakso, H., Liimatainen, T. (2018) Quantification of myocardial infarct area based on TRAFFn relaxation time maps - comparison with cardiovascular magnetic resonance late gadolinium enhancement, T1ρ and T2 in vivo. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 20 (1), 34. doi:10.1186/s12968-018-0463-x

Quantification of myocardial infarct area based on TRAFFn relaxation time maps : comparison with cardiovascular magnetic resonance late gadolinium enhancement, T and T2 in vivo

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Author: Ylä-Herttuala, Elias1; Laidinen, Svetlana1; Laakso, Hanne1,2;
Organizations: 1A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland
2Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Minneapolis
3Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu
4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Oulu
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-08-29


Background: Two days after myocardial infarction (MI), the infarct consists mostly on necrotic tissue, and the myocardium is transformed through granulation tissue to scar in two weeks after the onset of ischemia in mice. In the current work, we determined and optimized cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods for the detection of MI size during the scar formation without contrast agents in mice.

Methods: We characterized MI and remote areas with rotating frame relaxation time mapping including relaxation along fictitious field in nth rotating frame (RAFFn), T and T2 relaxation time mappings at 1, 3, 7, and 21 days after MI. These results were compared to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and Sirius Red-stained histology sections, which were obtained at day 21 after MI.

Results: All relaxation time maps showed significant differences in relaxation time between the MI and remote area. Areas of increased signal intensities after gadolinium injection and areas with increased TRAFF2 relaxation time were highly correlated with the MI area determined from Sirius Red-stained histology sections (LGE: R² = 0.92, P < 0.01, TRAFF2: R² = 0.95, P < 0.001). Infarct area determined based on T1ρ relaxation time correlated highly with Sirius Red histology sections (R² = 0.97, P < 0.01). The smallest overestimation of the LGE-defined MI area was obtained for TRAFF2 (5.6 ± 4.2%) while for T overestimation percentage was > 9% depending on T pulse power.

Conclusion: T and TRAFF2 relaxation time maps can be used to determine accurately MI area at various time points in the mouse heart. Determination of MI size based on TRAFF2 relaxation time maps could be performed without contrast agents, unlike LGE, and with lower specific absorption rate compared to on-resonance T relaxation time mapping.

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Series: Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance
ISSN: 1097-6647
ISSN-E: 1532-429X
ISSN-L: 1097-6647
Volume: 20
Issue: 1
Article number: 34
DOI: 10.1186/s12968-018-0463-x
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: Funding: Sigrid Juselius foundation and University of Eastern Finland Doctoral Programme of Molecular Medicine.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.