University of Oulu

S. Ansoldi et al 2018 ApJL 863 L10

The blazar TXS 0506+056 associated with a high-energy neutrino : insights into extragalactic jets and cosmic-ray acceleration

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Author: Ansoldi, S.1,2,3,4,5,6; Antonelli, L. A.7; Arcaro, C.8,9;
Baack, D.10; Babic, A.11,12,13,14,15; Banerjee, B.16; Bangale, P.17; Barres de Almeida, U.17,18; Barrio, J. A.19; Becerra Gonzalez, J.20,21; Bednarek, W.22; Bernardini, E.8,9,23,24; Berse, R. Ch.10; Berti, A.1,2,25; Besenrieder, J.17; Bhattacharyya, W.23; Bigongiari, C.7; Biland, A.26; Blanch, O.27; Bonnoli, G.28,29; Carosi, R.30,31; Ceribella, G.17; Chatterjee, A.16; Colak, S. M.27; Colin, P.17; Colombo, E.20,21; Contreras, J. L.19; Cortina, J.27; Covino, S.7; Cumani, P.27; D'Elia, V.7; Da Vela, P.28,29; Dazzi, F.7; De Angelis, A.8,9; De Lotto, B.1,2; Delfino, M.27,32; Delgado, J.27; Di Pierro, F.8,9; Dominguez, A.19; Prester, D. Dominis11,12,13,14,15; Dorner, D.33; Doro, M.8,9; Einecke, S.10; Elsaesser, D.10; Ramazani, V. Fallah34,35,36; Fattorini, A.10; Fernandez-Barral, A.8,9,27; Ferrara, G.7; Fidalgo, D.19; Foffano, L.8,9; Fonseca, M. V.19; Font, L.37,38; Fruck, C.17; Gallozzi, S.7; Garcia Lopez, R. J.20,21; Garczarczyk, M.23; Gaug, M.37,38; Giammaria, P.7; Godinovic, N.11,12,13,14,15; Guberman, D.27; Hadasch, D.3,4,5,6; Hahn, A.17; Hassan, T.27; Hayashida, M.3,4,5,6; Herrera, J.20,21; Hoang, J.19; Hrupec, D.11,12,13,14,15; Inoue, S.3,4,5,6; Ishio, K.17; Iwamura, Y.3,4,5,6; Konno, Y.3,4,5,6; Kubo, H.3,4,5,6; Kushida, J.3,4,5,6; Lamastra, A.7; Lelas, D.11,12,13,14,15; Leone, F.7; Lindfors, E.34,35,36; Lombardi, S.7; Longo, F.1,2,25; Lopez, M.19; Maggio, C.37,38; Majumdar, P.16; Makariev, M.39; Maneva, G.39; Manganaro, M.20,21; Mannheim, K.33; Maraschi, L.7; Mariotti, M.8,9; Martinez, M.27; Masuda, S.3,4,5,6; Mazin, D.3,4,5,6,17; Mielke, K.10; Minev, M.39; Miranda, J. M.28,29; Mirzoyan, R.17; Moralejo, A.27; Moreno, V.37,38; Moretti, E.27; Neustroev, V.34,35,36; Niedzwiecki, A.22; Nievas Rosillo, M.19; Nigro, C.23; Nilsson, K.34,35,36; Ninci, D.27; Nishijima, K.3,4,5,6; Noda, K.3,4,5,6; Nogues, L.27; Paiano, S.8,9; Palacio, J.27; Paneque, D.17; Paoletti, R.28,29; Paredes, J. M.40; Pedaletti, G.23; Penil, P.19; Peresano, M.1,2; Persic, M.1,2,41,42; Pfrang, K.10; Moroni, P. G. Prada30,31; Prandini, E.8,9; Puljak, I.11,12,13,14,15; Garcia, J. R.17; Rhode, W.10; Ribo, M.40; Rico, J.27; Righi, C.7; Rugliancich, A.28,29; Saha, L.19; Saito, T.3,4,5,6; Satalecka, K.23; Schweizer, T.17; Sitarek, J.22; Snidaric, I.11,12,13,14,15; Sobczynska, D.22; Stamerra, A.7; Strzys, M.17; Suric, T.11,12,13,14,15; Tavecchio, F.7; Temnikov, P.39; Terzic, T.11,12,13,14,15; Teshima, M.3,4,5,6,17; Torres-Alba, N.40; Tsujimoto, S.3,4,5,6; Vanzo, G.20,21; Acosta, M. Vazquez20,21; Vovk, I.17; Ward, J. E.27; Will, M.17; Zaric, D.11,12,13,14,15; Cerruti, Matteo43
Organizations: 1Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
2INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
3Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
4Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
5Tokai Univ, Tokyo, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan.
6RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan.
7Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
8Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
9INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
10Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
11Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia.
12Univ Split, FESB, Split 51000, Croatia.
13Univ Zagreb, FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
14Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia.
15Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
16Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1 Bidhannagar,Salt Lake,Sect 1, Kolkata 700064, India.
17Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
18URCA, CBPF, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
19Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
20Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
21Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 Tenerife, Spain.
22Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
23Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
24Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
25Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
26Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
27BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
28Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
29INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
30Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
31INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
32PIC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
33Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
34Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
35Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
36Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.
37Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
38Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES, IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
39Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
40Univ Barcelona, IEEC, ICC, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
41Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, Bologna, Italy.
42Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy.
43Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,LPNHE, F-75252 Paris, France.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: IOP Publishing, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-09-24


A neutrino with energy ~290 TeV, IceCube-170922A, was detected in coincidence with the BL Lac object TXS 0506+056 during enhanced gamma-ray activity, with chance coincidence being rejected at ~3σ level. We monitored the object in the very-high-energy (VHE) band with the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes for ~41 hr from 1.3 to 40.4 days after the neutrino detection. Day-timescale variability is clearly resolved. We interpret the quasi-simultaneous neutrino and broadband electromagnetic observations with a novel one-zone lepto-hadronic model, based on interactions of electrons and protons co-accelerated in the jet with external photons originating from a slow-moving plasma sheath surrounding the faster jet spine. We can reproduce the multiwavelength spectra of TXS 0506+056 with neutrino rate and energy compatible with IceCube-170922A, and with plausible values for the jet power of ~10⁴⁵ – 4 × 10⁴⁶erg s⁻¹. The steep spectrum observed by MAGIC is concordant with internal γγ absorption above ~100 GeV entailed by photohadronic production of a ~290 TeV neutrino, corroborating a genuine connection between the multi-messenger signals. In contrast to previous predictions of predominantly hadronic emission from neutrino sources, the gamma-rays can be mostly ascribed to inverse Compton upscattering of external photons by accelerated electrons. The X-ray and VHE bands provide crucial constraints on the emission from both accelerated electrons and protons. We infer that the maximum energy of protons in the jet comoving frame can be in the range ~10¹⁴ – 10¹⁸ eV.

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Series: Astrophysical journal letters
ISSN: 2041-8205
ISSN-E: 2041-8213
ISSN-L: 2041-8205
Volume: 863
Issue: 1
Article number: L10
DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad083
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2015-69818-P, FPA2012-36668, FPA2015-68378-P, FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-6-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2015-71662-C2-2-P, CSD2009-00064), and the Japanese JSPS and MEXT is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2012-0234 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" MDM-2014-0369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. Part of this work is based on archival data, software or on-line services provided by the Space Science Data Center—ASI.
Copyright information: © 2018. The American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence . Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.