University of Oulu

A. Kofi Amegah, Simo Näyhä,Educational attainment modifies the association of wealth status with elevated blood pressure in the Ghanaian population, Heliyon, Volume 4, Issue 7, 2018, e00711, ISSN 2405-8440,

Educational attainment modifies the association of wealth status with elevated blood pressure in the Ghanaian population

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Author: Amegah, A. Kofi1; Näyhä, Simo2
Organizations: 1Public Health Research Group, Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
2Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-10-01


The relationship between wealth and blood pressure (BP) in developing countries is unclear and it is important to understand how the socioeconomic environment influences BP in an African setting. Our objective was to determine the wealth differences in BP in the Ghanaian population and to clarify whether the relationship is modified by education level. Data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was analyzed. A total of 9396 women and 4388 men were sampled nationwide and interviewed for the survey. Prevalence of hypertension in the population was low (10.4%). Systolic BP, diastolic BP, and odds of elevated BP increased with increasing wealth status. A linear trend was noted. Richest respondents recorded a 2.65 mmHg (95% CI: 1.09, 4.21) and 3.14 mmHg (95% CI: 1.97, 4.31) excess in systolic BP and diastolic BP, respectively and also, a 151% (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.80, 3.48) increased odds of elevated BP compared with the poorest. The wealth trend in BP was strongest among primary educated respondents (Interaction p = 0.0007). We found evidence of a consistent increase in elevated BP with increasing wealth status in this African population, a trend that is contrary to what is seen in high income countries.

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Series: Heliyon
ISSN: 2405-8440
ISSN-E: 2405-8440
ISSN-L: 2405-8440
Volume: 4
Issue: 7
Article number: e00711
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00711
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Copyright information: © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (