University of Oulu

Koivusaari, K., Niinistö, S., Takkinen, H., Åkerlund, M., Korhonen, T., Ahonen, S., Toppari, J., Ilonen, J., Veijola, R., Knip, M., Alatossava, T., Virtanen, S. (2018) A novel processing-based classification and conventional food grouping to estimate milk product consumption in Finnish children. International Dairy Journal, 86, 96-102. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2018.07.007

A novel processing-based classification and conventional food grouping to estimate milk product consumption in Finnish children

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Author: Koivusaari, Katariina1; Niinistö, Sari1; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari1,2;
Organizations: 1Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare
2Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tampere
3Tampere University Hospital, Research, Development and Innovation Centre
4Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku
5Research Centre for Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku
6Immunogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku and Clinical Microbiology, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku
7Department of Paediatrics, University of Oulu
8Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Central Hospital
9Research Program Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki
10Tampere Centre for Child Health Research, Tampere University Hospital
11Folkhälsan Research Centre, University of Helsinki
12Department of Food and Nutrition, University of Helsinki
13Centre for Child Health Research, University of Tampere, University Hospital of Tampere
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-10-09


As more information is needed about the health aspects of milk processing; we classified milk products based on their homogenisation and heat-treatment history in the following inclusive classes: (i) homogenised, (ii) non-homogenised, (iii) fat-free; and (i) low-pasteurised or less heat-treated, (ii) high-pasteurised at <100 °C, (iii) high-pasteurised at ≥100 °C or sterilised. Milk product consumption of Finnish children was studied at the age of 6 months (n = 1305), 1 y (n = 1513), and 3 y (n = 1328) both using conventional food grouping and the novel processing-based grouping. At 6 months, more than three quarters of the children consumed cows’ milk products (median consumption 511 g d−1); at 3 y most of the consumed milk products were low-pasteurised or less heat-treated and homogenised. In contrast to children aged 3 y, almost all milk products consumed by infants aged 6 months were pasteurised at high temperature or sterilised.

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Series: International dairy journal
ISSN: 0958-6946
ISSN-E: 1879-0143
ISSN-L: 0958-6946
Volume: 86
Pages: 96 - 102
DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2018.07.007
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3141 Health care science
3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (Grants 63672, 68292, 79685, 79686, 80846, 114666, 126813, 129492, 139391, 201988, 210632, 276475), European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes (EFSD/Novo Nordisk Partnership and EFSD/JDRF/Novo Nordisk Programme), the Juho Vainio Foundation, the Finnish Cultural Foundation, the Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Tampere, Turku and Oulu University Hospitals (Grants 9E082, 9F089, 9G087, 9H092, 9J147, 9K149, 9L042, 9L117, 9M036, 9M114, 9N086, 9P057, 9R055, 9S074, 9T072), the JDRF (grants 4-1998-274, 4-1999-731, 4-2001-435), the European Union (grant BMH4-CT98-3314), the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence in Molecular Systems Immunology and Physiology Research 2012–2017, Decision No. 250114), and the Sigrid Juselius Foundation. The study sponsors were not involved in the design of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing the report; or the decision to submit the report for publication.
Copyright information: © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (