University of Oulu

Z. Khan, J. J. Lehtomäki, E. Hossain, M. Latva-Aho and A. Marshall, "An FPGA-Based Implementation of a Multifunction Environment Sensing Device for Shared Access With Rotating Radars," in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 2561-2578, Nov. 2018. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2828718

An FPGA-based implementation of a multifunction environment sensing device for shared access with rotating radars

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Author: Khan, Zaheer1; Lehtomäki, Janne J.1; Hossain, Ekram2;
Organizations: 1Department of Communications Engineering, University of Oulu
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba
3Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-10-10


To protect radar receivers and to facilitate shared access in radar bands, regulatory bodies have recommended the use of spectrum monitoring devices called environmental sensing capability (ESC). High-speed and low-cost ESC devices are required to process in real time the large amount of data (in-phase and quadrature samples) for the detection of radar signals and to differentiate them from secondary users (SUs) signals. In this paper, we present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based design and implementation of a multifunction ESC device that can detect radar pulses and can also differentiate them from SU signals in microsecond time scales. The proposed ESC device performs the following tasks in parallel: 1) it detects and differentiates between radar and SU signals; 2) it measures received signal strength from SUs for radar protection; and 3) it also measures SUs’ airtime utilization (ATU) in a channel, which can be used to perform load balancing (based on ATU) of SUs on different channels for efficient access. Detection of signals requires threshold setting. We present a novel minimum-based threshold setting technique, which is suitable for real-time operation of energy detectors. We implement a prototype of the proposed ESC device design on a Wireless Open-Access Research Platform node, which is equipped with a Xilinx FPGA. We evaluate the performance of the implemented device and show that with very high probability (close to 100%), it detects and differentiates between radar and SU signals. Moreover, it also accurately measures the ATU of SUs.

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Series: IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement
ISSN: 0018-9456
ISSN-E: 1557-9662
ISSN-L: 0018-9456
Volume: 67
Issue: 11
Pages: 2561 - 2578
DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2828718
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work is funded by a Digital solutions in sensing and interactions grant from Infotech Oulu.
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