University of Oulu

Emran, S.; Lappalainen, R.; Kullaa, A.M.; Myllymaa, S. Concentric Ring Probe for Bioimpedance Spectroscopic Measurements: Design and Ex Vivo Feasibility Testing on Pork Oral Tissues. Sensors 2018, 18, 3378.

Concentric ring probe for bioimpedance spectroscopic measurements : design and ex vivo feasibility testing on pork oral tissues

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Author: Emran, Shekh1; Lappalainen, Reijo1; Kullaa, Arja M.2,3,4;
Organizations: 1SIB Labs, Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
2Institute of Dentistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
3Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4Educational Dental Clinic, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 100, FI-70029 Kuopio, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-10-30


Many oral diseases, such as oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia, which have a high potential for malignant transformations, cause abnormal structural changes in the oral mucosa. These changes are clinically assessed by visual inspection and palpation despite their poor accuracy and subjective nature. We hypothesized that non-invasive bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) might be a viable option to improve the diagnostics of potentially malignant lesions. In this study, we aimed to design and optimize the measurement setup and to conduct feasibility testing on pork oral tissues. The contact pressure between a custom-made concentric ring probe and tissue was experimentally optimized. The effects of loading time and inter-electrode spacing on BIS spectra were also clarified. Tissue differentiation testing was performed for ex vivo pork oral tissues including palatinum, buccal mucosa, fat, and muscle tissue samples. We observed that the most reproducible results were obtained by using a loading weight of 200 g and a fixed time period under press, which was necessary to allow meaningful quantitative comparison. All studied tissues showed their own unique spectra, accompanied by significant differences in both impedance magnitude and phase (p ≤ 0.014, Kruskal-Wallis test). BIS shows promise, and further studies are warranted to clarify its potential to detect specific pathological tissue alterations.

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Series: Sensors
ISSN: 1424-8220
ISSN-E: 1424-8220
ISSN-L: 1424-8220
Volume: 18
Issue: 10
Article number: 3378
DOI: 10.3390/s18103378
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 217 Medical engineering
114 Physical sciences
313 Dentistry
Funding: This research was funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes) project “Novel spectroscopic methods for early detection and screening of oral cancer”, grant number 52/31/2014.
Copyright information: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (