University of Oulu

Väätäjä, M., Kähäri, H., Ohenoja, K., Sobocinski, M., Juuti, J., Jantunen, H. (2018) 3D printed dielectric ceramic without a sintering stage. Scientific Reports, 8, 15955 (2018). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-34408-5

3D printed dielectric ceramic without a sintering stage

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Author: Väätäjä, Maria1; Kähäri, Hanna1; Ohenoja, Katja2;
Organizations: 1Microelectronics Research Unit, P.O. Box 4500, 90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-11-08


This paper presents for the first time the fabrication of dielectric ceramic parts by 3D printing without sintering. The printable paste was prepared by mixing a carefully selected amount of water-soluble Li₂MoO₄ powder with water. A viscous mixture of solid ceramic particles and saturated aqueous phase was formed with a solid content of 60.0 vol.%. Printing of the sample discs was conducted with material extrusion using a low-cost syringe-style 3D printer. The consolidation and densification of the printed parts occurred during both printing and drying of the paste due to extrusion pressure, capillary forces, and recrystallization of the dissolved Li₂MoO₄. Complete drying of the paste was ensured by heating at 120 °C. The microstructure showed no delamination of the printed layers. Relatively high densities and good dielectric properties were obtained, especially when considering that no sintering and only pressure from the extrusion was employed. This approach is expected to be feasible for similar ceramics and ceramic composites.

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Series: Scientific reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
ISSN-E: 2045-2322
ISSN-L: 2045-2322
Volume: 8
Article number: 15955
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-34408-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The work leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013)/ERC grant agreement No. 291132. Author M.V. gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the Infotech Oulu Doctoral Program, Seppo Säynäjäkangas Foundation, Walter Ahlström Foundation, HPY Research Foundation, and Tauno Tönning Foundation. Author J. J. acknowledges funding from the Academy of Finland (Grant agreement No. 267573).
EU Grant Number: (291132) ULTIMATE CERAMICS - Printed Electroceramics with Ultimate Compositions
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 267573
Detailed Information: 267573 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2018. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit