University of Oulu

J. Holma, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen and J. Kostamovaara, "Characterization of the Timing Homogeneity in a CMOS SPAD Array Designed for Time-Gated Raman Spectroscopy," in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 1837-1844, July 2017. doi: 10.1109/TIM.2017.2673002

Characterization of the timing homogeneity in a CMOS SPAD array designed for time-gated Raman spectroscopy

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Author: Holma, Jouni1; Nissinen , Ilkka1; Nissinen, Jan1;
Organizations: 1Circuits and Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2017
Publish Date: 2018-12-13


A characterization environment was built to verify the timing characteristics of a single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array designed for time-gated Raman spectroscopy. The characterization was applied to a 256 × 16 SPAD array that employed an on-chip time-to-digital converter (TDC) with a 50–100-ps resolution for time resolving. The timing skew and the time window homogeneity across the array were resolved, moving the time-resolving windows over an optical pulse by picosecond-level delay steps. A typical one 160-ps skew across the array was measured. The TDC time bins had average sizes of 33–144 ps while their deviation across the array was 8–12 ps. The method is applicable to multidetector time-correlated single photon counting systems that can finely adjust the delay between the optical pulse and the reference signal.

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Series: IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement
ISSN: 0018-9456
ISSN-E: 1557-9662
ISSN-L: 0018-9456
Volume: 66
Issue: 7
Pages: 1837 - 1844
DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2017.2673002
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland, Center of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, under Contract 272196, Contract 255359, and Contract 283075.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 272196
Detailed Information: 272196 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
255359 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
283075 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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