University of Oulu

J. Norberg et al., "Gaussian Markov Random Field Priors in Ionospheric 3-D Multi-Instrument Tomography," in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 7009-7021, Dec. 2018. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2847026

Gaussian Markov random field priors in ionospheric 3-D multi-instrument tomography

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Author: Norberg, Johannes1; Vierinen, Juha2; Roininen, Lassi3;
Organizations: 1Finnish Meteorological Institute
2Department of Physics and Technology, University of Tromsø
3Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu
4Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 12.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-12-17


In ionospheric tomography, the atmospheric electron density is reconstructed from different electron density related measurements, most often from ground-based measurements of satellite signals. Typically, ionospheric tomography suffers from two major complications. First, the information provided by measurements is insufficient and additional information is required to obtain a unique solution. Second, with necessary spatial and temporal resolutions, the problem becomes very high dimensional, and hence, computationally infeasible. With Bayesian framework, the required additional information can be given with prior probability distributions. The approach then provides physically quantifiable probabilistic interpretation for all model variables. Here, Gaussian Markov random fields (GMRFs) are used for constructing the prior electron density distribution. The use of GMRF introduces sparsity to the linear system, making the problem computationally feasible. The method is demonstrated over Fennoscandia with measurements from global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite receiver networks, GNSS occultation receivers, LEO satellite Langmuir probes, and ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar measurements.

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Series: IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing
ISSN: 0196-2892
ISSN-E: 1558-0644
ISSN-L: 0196-2892
Volume: 56
Issue: 12
Pages: 7009 - 7021
DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2847026
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
1171 Geosciences
111 Mathematics
Funding: The work of J. Norberg was supported in part by the Academy of Finland under Grant 287679 and in part by the Regional Council of Lapland through European Regional Development Fund under Grant A70179. The work of L. Roininen was supported by the Academy of Finland under Project 307741 and Project 313709. The work of K. Kauristie was supported by the Academy of Finland under Grant 287679.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 287679
Detailed Information: 287679 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
307741 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
313709 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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