University of Oulu

H. Ruokamo, L. W. Hallman and J. Kostamovaara, "An 80 x 25 Pixel CMOS Single-Photon Sensor With Flexible On-Chip Time Gating of 40 Subarrays for Solid-State 3-D Range Imaging," in IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2018.2878816

An 80 x 25 pixel CMOS single-photon sensor with flexible on-chip time gating of 40 subarrays for solid-state 3-D range imaging

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Author: Ruokamo, Henna1; Hallman , Lauri W.1; Kostamovaara, Juha1
Organizations: 1Circuits and Systems Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2018
Publish Date: 2018-12-31


A CMOS solid-state 3-D range imager that uses short (~110 ps) laser pulses and a novel flexible time gating scheme for a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array is presented. The array is divided into 40 subarrays for which a narrow (<0.8 ns) time gating position can be set and scanned independently. The imager can be set to measure multiple regions of interest by means of the flexible time gating of the subarrays. The time gating for each of the subarrays is selected separately with an on-chip delay-locked loop (DLL) block that has 240 outputs and a delay grid of ~ 100 ps. The prototype has 80 x 25 pixels overall with 10 x 5 pixel subarrays. The fill factor of the sensor area is 32%. A 3-D range image is demonstrated at ~ 10 frames/s with centimeter-level precision in the case of passive targets within a range of ~4 m and a field of view of 18° x 28°, requiring an average active illumination power of only 0.1 mW.

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Series: IEEE journal of solid-state circuits
ISSN: 0018-9200
ISSN-E: 1558-173X
ISSN-L: 0018-9200
Volume: 54
Issue: 2
Pages: 501 - 510
DOI: 10.1109/JSSC.2018.2878816
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Center of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Academy of Finland under Contract 307362, in part by the Infotech Oulu Doctoral Programme, and in part by Business Finland under Contract 2773/31/2015.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 307362
Detailed Information: 307362 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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