University of Oulu

Prasad, M., Takkinen, H.-M., Uusitalo, L., Tapanainen, H., Ovaskainen, M.-L., Alfthan, G., … Virtanen, S. (2018). Carotenoid Intake and Serum Concentration in Young Finnish Children and Their Relation with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. Nutrients, 10(10), 1533. doi:10.3390/nu10101533

Carotenoid intake and serum concentration in young Finnish children and their relation with fruit and vegetable consumption

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Author: Prasad, Marianne1; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari1,2; Uusitalo, Liisa1;
Organizations: 1Nutrition Unit, Department of Public Health Solutions, The National Institute for Health and Welfare
2Faculty of Social Sciences/Health Sciences, University of Tampere
3Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare
4Science Center, Tampere University Hospital
5Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku and Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital
6Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Eastern Finland
7Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku
8Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Hospital
9Research Program Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Hospital
10Folkhälsan Research Center, University of Helsinki
11Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu
12Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-01-03


Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with a reduced risk of many chronic diseases. These foods are the main dietary source of carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary intake and serum concentrations of α- and β-carotene in a sample of young Finnish children from the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study. The current analysis comprised 3-day food records and serum samples from 207 children aged 1, 2 and 3 years. Spearman and partial correlations, as well as a cross-classification analyses, were used to assess the relationship between dietary intake and the corresponding biomarkers. Serum concentrations of α- and β-carotene were significantly higher among the 1-year-old compared to the 3-year-old children. Dietary intakes of α- and β-carotene correlated significantly with their respective serum concentrations in all age groups, the association being highest at the age of 1 year (α-carotene r = 0.48; p < 0.001 and β-carotene r = 0.47; p < 0.001), and lowest at the age of 3 years (α-carotene r = 0.44; p < 0.001 and β-carotene r = 0.30; p < 0.001). A cross-classification showed that 72–81% of the participants were correctly classified to the same or adjacent quartile, when comparing the reported dietary intakes and the concentrations of the corresponding carotenoid in serum. The 3-day food record seems to be reasonably valid in the assessment of root vegetable consumption among young Finnish children. Root vegetables were the main dietary source of both carotenoids in all age groups. The high consumption of commercial baby foods among the 1-year-old children was reflected in the relatively high dietary intake and serum concentration of both carotenoids.

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Series: Nutrients
ISSN: 2072-6643
ISSN-E: 2072-6643
ISSN-L: 2072-6643
Volume: 10
Issue: 10
Article number: 1533
DOI: 10.3390/nu10101533
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3141 Health care science
Funding: The study was financially supported by the Academy of Finland (grants 63672, 79685, 79686, 80846, 126813, 201988, 210632, 276475), the Finnish Diabetes Association, the Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation, the Finnish Pediatric Research Foundation, the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes (EFSD/Novo Nordisk Partnership and EFSD/Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Novo Nordisk Programme), Doctoral Programmes for Public Health, Juho Vainio Foundation, Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, Finnish Cultural Foundation, the Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Tampere University Hospital (Grant numbers 9H092, 9J147, 9K149, 9L117, 9M114, 9N086, 9P057, 9R055) and Medical Research Funds of Turku and Oulu University Hospitals.
Copyright information: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).