University of Oulu

Lappalainen, K., Vogeler, N., Kärkkäinen, J. et al. Biomass Conv. Bioref. (2018) 8: 965.

Microwave-assisted conversion of novel biomass materials into levulinic acid

Saved in:
Author: Lappalainen, Katja1,2; Vogeler, Nils2; Kärkkäinen, Johanna2;
Organizations: 1University of Jyväskylä, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, Talonpojankatu 2 B, 67100 Kokkola, Finland
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Centria University of Applied Sciences, Talonpojankatu 2, 67100 Kokkola, Finland
4Department of Ecology and Genetics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-08-26


Levulinic acid is considered one of the most important platform chemicals. It is currently produced mainly from lignocellulosic biomasses. However, there are also other abundant biomass materials, which could be used as raw materials for levulinic acid production. In this work, levulinic acid was produced from two novel biomasses in the presence of Brønsted (H2SO4) and Lewis acid (CrCl3·6H2O or AlCl3·6H2O) catalysts. The studied materials were carbohydrate-rich potato peel waste and sporocarps of the fungus Cortinarius armillatus. Reaction conditions, i.e., time, temperature, H2SO4, and Lewis acid concentrations, were studied by utilizing full 24-factorial experimental designs. Microwave irradiation was used as the heating method. Based on the results, the reaction temperature and the H2SO4 concentration had the greatest impact on the yield of levulinic acid. The highest yield obtained in this study from potato peel waste was 49% with 180 °C for reaction temperature, 15 min for reaction time, and 0.5 and 0.0075 M for the concentrations of H2SO4 and CrCl3, respectively. When Cortinarius armillatus was used as the raw material, the highest yield was 62% with 180 °C for reaction temperature, 40 min for reaction time, and 0.5 and 0.0075 M for the concentrations of H2SO4 and CrCl3, respectively.

see all

Series: Biomass conversion and biorefinery
ISSN: 2190-6815
ISSN-E: 2190-6823
ISSN-L: 2190-6815
Volume: 8
Issue: 4
Pages: 965 - 970
DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0334-6
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This work was financially supported by Bioraff Botnia project (nr. 20200327, EU/Interreg Botnia-Atlantica), PREBIO project (EU, regional fund A70594), Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation (nr. 201800070) and Oulun läänin talousseuran maataloussäätiö.
Copyright information: © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Biomass Conv. Bioref. The final authenticated version is available online at: