University of Oulu

Johanna Kutuniva, Jari Mäkinen, Tommi Kauppila, Anssi Karppinen, Seppo Hellsten, Tero Luukkonen, Ulla Lassi, Geopolymers as active capping materials for in situ remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2019, 102852, ISSN 2213-3437,

Geopolymers as active capping materials for in situ remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments

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Author: Kutuniva, Johanna1,2; Mäkinen, Jari3; Kauppila, Tommi3;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Kerttu Saalasti Institute, Pajatie 5, FI-85500, Nivala, Finland
2University of Oulu, Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, FI-90014, Finland
3Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 1237, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland
4Freshwater Centre, Finnish Environmental Institute, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
5Kajaani University of Applied Sciences, Kuntokatu 5, FI-87100, Kajaani, Finland
6University of Oulu, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, FI-90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-12-21


Metal(loid) contamination in sediments is a widespread environmental issue. Sediments act normally as metal(loid) sinks, but if chemical conditions (such as pH or redox potential) change, they can become sources of secondary pollution. Consequently, various strategies for both in and ex situ remediation of contaminated sediments have been developed. One promising method is active capping, which involves the injection of adsorbents as a layer on the sediment surface or the mixing of adsorbents within the sediment. Adsorbents decrease the bioavailability of metal(loid)s. In the present work, the suitability of alkali-activated blast-furnace-slag, metakaolin geopolymer, and exfoliated vermiculite were evaluated for in situ stabilization of two metal(loid)-contaminated lake sediments through laboratory-scale experiments. The results indicated that adsorbent amendments had metal(loid)-specific performance: alkali-activated blast-furnace slag was suitable for Al, Cu, Fe, and Ni; metakaolin geopolymer for Cu, Cr (total), and Fe; and vermiculite for Al and Zn. None of the materials could stabilize Ba, Sr, or Ti. Furthermore, the amendments performed differently in two different lake sediments, implying that the effectiveness of the amendments needs to be confirmed on a case-by-case basis.

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Series: Journal of environmental chemical engineering
ISSN: 2213-2929
ISSN-E: 2213-3437
ISSN-L: 2213-2929
Volume: 7
Issue: 1
Article number: 102852
DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2018.102852
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: The authors wish to thank all the sources of funding for the project. This study was financially supported by the EU through the KaiHali project, Finnish Cultural foundation by The Central Ostrobothnia Regional Fund, Tauno Tönning Research foundation, and Kerttu Saalasti foundation.
Copyright information: © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license