University of Oulu

Ohenoja, K., Wigren, V., Österbacka, J. et al. Waste Biomass Valor (2018).

Applicability of fly ash from fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, or wastes to concrete

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Author: Ohenoja, Katja1; Wigren, Valter2; Österbacka, Jan3;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Renotech Oy, Turku, Finland
3Fortum Waste Solutions Oy, Riihimäki, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-05-18


The chemical and physical characteristics of five different fly ashes originating from fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, or different wastes were investigated to determine whether they fulfilled the requirements for concrete set by the European EN 450-1 standard. Fly ash originating mostly from peat combustion fulfilled all the requirements of the EN 450-1 standard, without any treatments. Some chemical and physical characteristics (i.e., free calcium oxide, sulfate, chloride, and fineness) of the other types of fly ash exceeded the limits in standard, and the sum of the main components (SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃) failed to comply with the standard. However, it should be noted that the requirements of the European standard are more restrictive than similar standards in the US; all applications are not needing standardized concrete, and the potential utility of the studied fly ash materials could be improved by mechanical treatments.

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Series: Waste and biomass valorization
ISSN: 1877-2641
ISSN-E: 1877-265X
ISSN-L: 1877-2641
Issue: First Online
DOI: 10.1007/s12649-018-0319-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This study was supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation and the following Finnish companies: Boliden Harjavalta Oy, Ekokem Palvelu Oy, Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Helen Oy, Jyväskylän Energia Oy, Kemira Chemicals Oy, Metsä Board Oyj, Napapiirin Energia ja Vesi Oy, Nordkalk Oy Ab, Paroc Group Oy, SSAB Europe Oy, Stora Enso Oyj, UPM-Kymmene Oyj, and Valmet Technologies Oy.
Copyright information: © Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Waste and Biomass Valorization. The final authenticated version is available online at: