University of Oulu

Ohenoja, K., Körkkö, M., Wigren, V. et al. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2019) 16: 1839.

Increasing the utilization potential of fly ashes from fluidized bed combustion by mechanical treatments

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Author: Ohenoja, K.1; Körkkö, M.2; Wigren, V.3;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Haarla Oy, Tampere, Finland
3Renotech Oy, Turku, Finland
4Fortum Waste Solutions Oy, Riihimäki, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-05-31


The increasing use of biomasses in the production of electricity and heat delivers an increased amount burning residue, fly ash that disposal is becoming more and more restricted and expensive. Therefore, there is a great interest to utilize fly ash in other means than disposal. This study aimed to determine the suitability of air jet sieving and air classification to separate detrimental elements, such as sulfate, chloride and some heavy metals, into fine fractions. Furthermore, the effect of fly ash deagglomeration on classification selectivity was studied. Experiments were conducted using two fly ash samples originated from fluidized bed combustion of peat, forest residues and wastes. The results showed that it is possible to significantly improve the utilization potential of fly ashes using air jet classification. In classification, calcium is concentrated into a fine fraction and silica and aluminum are concentrated in coarse fractions. Sulfate, chloride and studied detrimental metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) enrich to the fine fraction with high selectivity. Deagglomeration had a minor effect, as it slightly improved the classification selectivity for some elements.

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Series: International journal of environmental science and technology
ISSN: 1735-1472
ISSN-E: 1735-2630
ISSN-L: 1735-1472
Volume: 16
Issue: 4
Pages: 1839 - 1846
DOI: 10.1007/s13762-018-1812-x
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This study was supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation and the following Finnish companies: Boliden Harjavalta Oy, Ekokem Palvelu Oy, Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Helen Oy, Jyväskylän Energia Oy, Kemira Chemicals Oy, Metsä Board Oyj, Napapiirin Energia ja Vesi Oy, Nordkalk Oy Ab, Paroc Group Oy, SSAB Europe Oy, Stora Enso Oyj, UPM-Kymmene Oyj and Valmet Technologies Oy.
Copyright information: © Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Waste and Biomass Valorization. The final authenticated version is available online at: