University of Oulu

T. Selkälä, J. A. Sirviö, G. S. Lorite, H. Liimatainen, ChemSusChem 2016, 9, 3074.

Anionically stabilized cellulose nanofibrils through succinylation pretreatment in urea–lithium chloride deep eutectic solvent

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Author: Selkälä, Tuula1; Sirviö, Juho Antti1; Lorite, Gabriela S.2;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit University of Oulu Finland
2Microelectronics Research Unit University of Oulu Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Publish Date: 2019-02-08


Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are green chemicals that have the potential to replace traditional solvents in chemical reactions. In this study, urea–LiCl DES was used successfully as a reaction medium in the anionic functionalization of wood cellulose with succinic anhydride. The effects of reaction temperature and time on the carboxyl content and yield were evaluated. The analyses of the degree of polymerization and crystallinity revealed that the DES was a nondegrading and nondissolving reaction medium. Three samples with the highest carboxyl contents were further nanofibrillated with a microfluidizer to diameters of 2–7 nm, as observed by atomic force microscopy. Samples treated at 70–80 °C for 2 h gave the best outcome and resulted in highly viscose and transparent gels. The sample treated at 90 °C contained larger nanoparticles and larger aggregates owing to the occurrence of possible side reactions but resulted in better thermal stability.

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Series: ChemSusChem
ISSN: 1864-5631
ISSN-E: 1864-564X
ISSN-L: 1864-5631
Volume: 9
Issue: 21
Pages: 3074 - 3083
DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201600903
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The financial support of the Advanced Materials Doctoral Program (ADMA‐DP) of the University of Oulu Graduate School is greatly acknowledged.
Copyright information: © 2016 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: T. Selkälä, J. A. Sirviö, G. S. Lorite, H. Liimatainen, ChemSusChem 2016, 9, 3074, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.