University of Oulu

Venhola, A., Peletier, R., Laurikainen, E., Salo, H., Iodice, E., Mieske, S., Hilker, M., Wittmann, C., Lisker, T., Paolillo, M., Cantiello, M., Janz, J., Spavone, M., D’Abrusco, R., Ven, G., Napolitano, N., Kleijn, G., Maddox, N., Capaccioli, M., Grado, A., Valentijn, E., Falcón-Barroso, J., Limatola, L. (2018) The Fornax Deep Survey with the VST. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 620, A165.

The Fornax Deep Survey with the VST : IV. A size and magnitude limited catalog of dwarf galaxies in the area of the Fornax cluster

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Author: Venhola, Aku1,2; Peletier, Reynier2; Laurikainen, Eija1;
Organizations: 1Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Finland
2Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
3INAF – Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples, Italy
4European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
5European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
6Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
7University of Naples Federico II, C.U. Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Naples, Italy
8INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Maggini, 64100 Teramo, Italy
9Finnish Centre of Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö, Finland
10Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, 02138 Cambridge, MA, USA
11Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
12ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
13Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via L’actea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Spain
14Depto. Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, C/ Via L’actea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Spain
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: EDP Sciences, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-02-20


Context: The Fornax Deep Survey (FDS), an imaging survey in the u′, g′, r′, and i′-bands, has a supreme resolution and image depth compared to the previous spatially complete Fornax Cluster Catalog (FCC). Our new data allows us to study the galaxies down to r′-band magnitude mr′ ≈ 21 mag (Mr′ ≈ −10.5 mag), which opens a new parameter regime to investigate the evolution of dwarf galaxies in the cluster environment. After the Virgo cluster, Fornax is the second nearest galaxy cluster to us, and with its different mass and evolutionary state, it provides a valuable comparison that makes it possible to understand the various evolutionary effects on galaxies and galaxy clusters. These data provide an important legacy dataset to study the Fornax cluster.

Aims: We aim to present the Fornax Deep Survey (FDS) dwarf galaxy catalog, focusing on explaining the data reduction and calibrations, assessing the quality of the data, and describing the methods used for defining the cluster memberships and first order morphological classifications for the catalog objects. We also describe the main scientific questions that will be addressed based on the catalog. This catalog will also be invaluable for future follow-up studies of the Fornax cluster dwarf galaxies.

Methods: As a first step we used the SExtractor fine-tuned for dwarf galaxy detection, to find galaxies from the FDS data, covering a 26 deg2 area of the main cluster up to its virial radius, and the area around the Fornax A substructure. We made 2D-decompositions of the identified galaxies using GALFIT, measure the aperture colors, and the basic morphological parameters like concentration and residual flux fraction. We used color–magnitude, luminosity–radius and luminosity–concentration relations to separate the cluster galaxies from the background galaxies. We then divided the cluster galaxies into early- and late-type galaxies according to their morphology and gave first order morphological classifications using a combination of visual and parametric classifications.

Results: Our final catalog includes 14 095 galaxies. We classify 590 galaxies as being likely Fornax cluster galaxies, of which 564 are dwarfs (Mr′ >  −18.5 mag) consisting our Fornax dwarf catalog. Of the cluster dwarfs we classify 470 as early-types, and 94 as late-type galaxies. Our final catalog reaches its 50% completeness limit at magnitude Mr′ = −10.5 mag and surface brightness μ¯e,r′ = 26 mag arcsec−2, which is approximately three magnitudes deeper than the FCC. Based on previous works and comparison with a spectroscopically confirmed subsample, we estimate that our final Fornax dwarf galaxy catalog has ≲10% contamination from the background objects.

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Series: Astronomy and astrophysics
ISSN: 0004-6361
ISSN-E: 1432-0746
ISSN-L: 0004-6361
Volume: 620
Article number: A165
DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201833933
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: A.V. would like to thank the Vilho, Yrjö, and Kalle Väisälä Foundation of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters for the financial support during the writing of this paper. GvdV acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 724857 (Consolidator Grant ArcheoDyn). R.F.P., T.L., E.L., H.S., E.I., and J.J. acknowledge financial support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 721463 to the SUNDIAL ITN network. H.S. and E.L. are also supported by the Academy of Finland grant n:o 297738. C.W. is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) through project 394551440.
EU Grant Number: (721463) SUNDIAL - SUrvey Network for Deep Imaging Analysis and Learning
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 297738
Detailed Information: 297738 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © ESO 2018.