Direct sulfation of cellulose fibers using a reactive deep eutectic solvent to produce highly charged cellulose nanofibers
|Author:||Sirviö, Juho Antti1; Ukkola, Jonne1; Liimatainen, Henrikki1|
1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014 Oulu, Finland
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe201902266319
|Publish Date:|| 2019-02-26
Wood cellulose pulp was sulfated using a reactive deep eutectic solvent (DES). DES was prepared by heating sulfamic acid and urea together at 80 °C at a molar ratio of 1:4, 1:3, or 1:2. Sulfation of cellulose was performed by mixing dry cellulose fibers with DES at 80 °C, followed by heating at 150 °C for half an hour. Anionic charge as high as 3 mmol/g (degree of substitution of 0.68) was obtained with this simple chemical modification of cellulose at an elevated temperature using DES both as reaction media and reagent without any external solvent. The decrease in the urea content of DES improved the sulfation efficiency. In addition, the presence of urea led to the carbamation of cellulose to some extent. Cellulose sulfate (charge of 2.40 mmol/g) became a gel-like material in water, and after passing once through a microfluidizator, a highly transparent nanocellulose gel (transmittance of 0.1% solution at a visible light range was over 95%) was obtained. Sulfated cellulose nanofibers (SCNFs) exhibited a width of around 4 nm with a minor presence of elemental fibril aggregates (containing five or less elemental fibrils). SCNFs with high aspect ratio can have a potential end-use as a rheology modifier because of their high viscosity even at low concentrations or act as reinforcing additives.
|Pages:||2303 - 2316|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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