University of Oulu

Zbair, M., Bottlinger, M., Ainassaari, K. et al. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Argan Nut Shell: Functional Mesoporous Carbon with Excellent Performance in the Adsorption of Bisphenol A and Diuron. Waste Biomass Valor 11, 1565–1584 (2020).

Hydrothermal carbonization of Argan nut shell : functional mesoporous carbon with excellent performance in the adsorption of bisphenol A and diuron

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Author: Zbair, Mohamed1,2,3; Bottlinger, Michael2; Ainassaari, Kaisu3;
Organizations: 1Laboratory of Catalysis and Corrosion of Materials (LCCM), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences of El Jadida, University of Chouaïb Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
2Laboratory of Hydrothermal Carbonization Process, Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld, Trier University of Applied Sciences, Trier, Germany
3Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2019-02-28


Hydrochar derived from Argan nut shell (ANS) was synthesized and applied to remove bisphenol A (BPA) and diuron. The results indicated that the hydrochar prepared at 200 °C (HTC@ANS-200) possessed a higher specific surface area (42 m²/g) than hydrochar (HTC@ANS-180) prepared at 180 °C (17 m²/g). The hydrochars exhibited spherical particles, which are rich in functional groups. The HTC@ANS-200 exhibited high adsorption efficiency, of about 92% of the BPA removal and 95% of diuron removal. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacities of HTC@ANS-200 at room temperature were 1162.79 mg/for Bisphenol A and 833.33 mg/g for diuron (higher than most reported adsorbents). The adsorption process was spontaneous (− ΔG°) and exothermic (− ΔH°). Excellent reusability was reclaimed after five cycles, the removal efficiency showed a weak decrease of 4% for BPA and 1% for diuron. The analysis of Fourier transforms infrared spectrometry demonstrated that the aromatic C=C and OH played major roles in the adsorption mechanisms of BPA and diuron in this study. The high adsorption capacity was attributed to the beneficial porosity (The pore size of HTC@ANS-200 bigger than the size of BPA and diuron molecule) and surface functional groups. BPA and diuron adsorption occurred also via multiple adsorption mechanisms, including pore filling, π–π interactions, and hydrogen bonding interactions on HTC@ANS-200.

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Series: Waste and biomass valorization
ISSN: 1877-2641
ISSN-E: 1877-265X
ISSN-L: 1877-2641
Volume: 11
Pages: 1565 - 1584
DOI: 10.1007/s12649-018-00554-0
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007–2013) under the Grant Agreement No. [PIRSES-GA-2012-317714] No-Waste.
EU Grant Number: (317714) NO-WASTE - Utilization of Industrial By-products and Waste in Environmental Protection
Dataset Reference: Supplementary material:
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.