University of Oulu

Zbair, M., Ainassaari, K., El Assal, Z. et al. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2018) 25: 35657.

Steam activation of waste biomass : highly microporous carbon, optimization of bisphenol A, and diuron adsorption by response surface methodology

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Author: Zbair, Mohamed1,2; Ainassaari, Kaisu2; El Assal, Zouhair2;
Organizations: 1Laboratory of Catalysis and Corrosion of Materials (LCCM), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences of El Jadida, University of Chouaïb Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
2Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-02-28


Highly microporous carbons were prepared from argan nut shell (ANS) using steam activation method. The carbons prepared (ANS@H2O-30, ANS@H2O-90, and ANS@H2O-120) were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, nitrogen adsorption, total X-ray fluorescence, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The ANS@H2O-120 was found to have a high surface area of 2853 m²/g. The adsorption of bisphenol A and diuron on ANS@H2O-120 was investigated. The isotherm data were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich models. Langmuir isotherm model presented the best fit to the experimental data suggesting micropore filling of ANS@H2O-120. The ANS@H2O-120 adsorbent demonstrated high monolayer adsorption capacity of 1408 and 1087 mg/g for bisphenol A and diuron, respectively. The efficiency of the adsorption was linked to the porous structure and to the availability of the surface adsorption sites on ANS@H2O-120. Response surface method was used to optimize the removal efficiency of bisphenol A and diuron on ANS@H2O-120 from aqueous solution.

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Series: Environmental science and pollution research
ISSN: 0944-1344
ISSN-E: 1614-7499
ISSN-L: 0944-1344
Volume: 25
Issue: 35
Pages: 35657 - 35671
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3455-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP/ 2007–2013) under the grant agreement no. [PIRSES-GA-2012-317714]. No-Waste.
EU Grant Number: (317714) NO-WASTE - Utilization of Industrial By-products and Waste in Environmental Protection
Dataset Reference: Supplementary material:
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.