University of Oulu

Jiggens, P., Clavie, C., Evans, H., O’Brien, T. P., Witasse, O., Mishev, A. L., et al. (2019). In situ data and effect correlation during September 2017 solar particle event. Space Weather, 17, 99–117.

In‐situ data and effect correlation during September 2017 solar particle event

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Author: Jiggens, P.1; Clavie, C.2; Evans, H.1;
Organizations: 1European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, Netherlands
2European Space Operations Centre, European Space Agency, Darmstadt, Germany
3The Aerospace Corporation, VA, Chantilly, USA
4Space Climate Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Sodankylä, Finland
6Department of Space Science, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
7Center for Space Radiations, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain‐la‐Neuve, Belgium
8DH Consultancy, Leuven, Belgium
9Space Applications and Research Consultancy, Athens, Greece
10Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany
11Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
12European Astronaut Centre, European Space Agency, Cologne, Germany
13Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
14Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, USA
15Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
16Space Systems Finland Oy, Espoo, Finland
17National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 11.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-03-07


Solar energetic particles are one of the main sources of particle radiation seen in space. In the first part of September 2017 the most active solar period of cycle 24 produced four large X‐class flares and a series of (interplanetary) coronal mass ejections, which gave rise to radiation storms seen over all energies and at the ground by neutron monitors. This paper presents comprehensive cross comparisons of in situ radiation detector data from near‐Earth satellites to give an appraisal on the state of present data processing for monitors of such particles. Many of these data sets have been the target of previous cross calibrations, and this event with a hard spectrum provides the opportunity to validate these results. As a result of the excellent agreement found between these data sets and the use of neutron monitor data, this paper also presents an analytical expression for fluence spectrum for the event. Derived ionizing dose values have been computed to show that although there is a significant high‐energy component, the event was not particularly concerning as regards dose effects in spacecraft electronics. Several sets of spacecraft data illustrating single event effects are presented showing a more significant impact in this regard. Such a hard event can penetrate thick shielding; human dose quantities measured inside the International Space Station and derived through modeling for aircraft altitudes are also presented. Lastly, simulation results of coronal mass ejection propagation through the heliosphere are presented along with data from Mars‐orbiting spacecraft in addition to data from the Mars surface.

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Series: Space weather
ISSN: 1542-7390
ISSN-E: 1542-7390
ISSN-L: 1542-7390
Volume: 17
Issue: 1
Pages: 99 - 117
DOI: 10.1029/2018SW001936
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: NOAA's NCEI (National Centers for Environmental Information) is the authoritative provider for original GOES data which can be accessed here: The work to derive the effective energies for the GOES/EPEAD instrument was supported under ESA contract 4000108377/13/NL/AK. Along with extensive cleaning of the data to correct for caveats, this results in the SEPEM Reference Data Set (RDS). Version 2.1 of the RDS can be found here: The work to derive cross‐calibrated fluxes for the Proba‐1/SREM and INTEGRAL/IREM data was supported under ESA contract 21480/08/NL/NR. The authors are grateful to the PROBA‐V/EPT teams at B.USOC and ESA/Redu for deep involvement in the data acquisition process. The CSR team also thanks P. Coquay, J. Nijskens, H. Verbeelen, and W. Verschueren at the Belgian Science Policy ‐ Space Research and Applications (BELSPO) for support to the PRODEX project entitled “PROBA‐V/EPT‐ Data Exploitation‐Extension,” ESA/PRODEX PEA C4000107617. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan) is acknowledged for providing access to Space Environment Data Acquisition Monitor (SEDA) data. SEDA data analysis was supported by ESA contract 4000119253/17/NL/LF/hh. The RPS work was supported by NASA Van Allen Probes science funding through JHU/APL on contract NNN0601C. RPS sensor data are available from the Virtual Radiation Belt Observatory at The work to derive the GLE fluxes and aircraft doses was supported by the Academy of Finland (project 272157, Center of Excellence ReSoLVE and project 267186) and the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (grant ST/N000749/1). At DLR, Cologne, DOSIS 3D was supported by the DLR grant FuE‐Projekt “ISS LIFE” (Programm RF‐FuW, Teilprogramm 475). This work was supported at the NASA Johnson Space Center by the NASA Human Health and Performance Contract, NNJ15HK11B. The MSL‐RAD project is supported in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, under Jet Propulsion Laboratory subcontract 1273039 to Southwest Research Institute, and in Germany by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and DLR's Space Administration grants 50QM0501, 50QM1201, and 50QM1701 to the Christian Albrechts University, Kiel. The work to derive Electro‐L2 and Meteor‐M2 data was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant 16‐17‐00098). The authors thank J. J. Plaut for providing the Mars Odyssey HEND data.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 272157
Detailed Information: 272157 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.