University of Oulu

Jonna Malmberg, Sanna Järvelä, Jukka Holappa, Eetu Haataja, Xiaohua Huang, Antti Siipo, Going beyond what is visible: What multichannel data can reveal about interaction in the context of collaborative learning?, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 96, 2019, Pages 235-245, ISSN 0747-5632,

Going beyond what is visible : what multichannel data can reveal about interaction in the context of collaborative learning?

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Author: Malmberg, Jonna1; Järvelä, Sanna1; Holappa, Jukka1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 2000, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-06-26


Progress in the development of technology has provided data-capturing devices that make it possible to identify detailed processes in collaborative learning. This study utilized multichannel data, namely physiological data, video observations, and facial recognition data, to explore what they can reveal about types of interaction and regulation of learning during different phases of collaborative learning progress. Participants were five groups of three members each, selected for further study from an initial set of 48 students. The collaborative task was to design a healthy breakfast for an athlete. Empatica sensors were used to capture episodes of simultaneous arousal, and video observations were used to contextualize working phases and types of interaction. Facial expression data were created by post-processing video-recorded data. The results show that simultaneous arousal episodes occurred throughout phases of collaborative learning and the learners presented the most negative facial expressions during the simultaneous arousal episodes. Most of the collaborative interaction during simultaneous arousal was low-level, and regulated learning was not observable. However, when the interaction was high-level, markers of regulated learning were present; when the interaction was confused, it included monitoring activities. This study represents an advance in testing new methods for the objective measurement of social interaction and regulated learning in collaborative contexts.

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Series: Computers in human behavior
ISSN: 0747-5632
ISSN-E: 0747-5632
ISSN-L: 0747-5632
Volume: 96
Pages: 235 - 245
DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.030
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Funding: This study was supported by the Finnish Academy grant, 275440, SLAM research project.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 275440
Detailed Information: 275440 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license