University of Oulu

T. Schroderus-Salo, L. Hirvonen, A. Henner, S. Ahonen, M. Kääriäinen, J. Miettunen, K. Mikkonen, Development and validation of a psychometric scale for assessing healthcare professionals' knowledge in radiation protection, Radiography, Volume 25, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 136-142, ISSN 1078-8174,

Development and validation of a psychometric scale for assessing healthcare professionals’ knowledge in radiation protection

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Author: Schroderus-Salo, T.1; Hirvonen, L.1; Henner, A.2;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
2Degree Programme in Radiography and Radiation Therapy, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Kiviharjuntie 4, 90220 Oulu, Finland
3Academic Affairs, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
5Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-01-03


Introduction: Healthcare professionals must sufficiently understand ionising radiation and the associated protection measures to avoid unnecessarily exposing patients and staff to ionising radiation. Hence, a proper safety culture is important to lowering health risks. The development and establishment of an instrument that can indicate healthcare professionals’ understanding/knowledge of radiation protection concepts can greatly contribute to a good safety culture.

Aim:The purpose of the present study was to develop and psychometrically test the Healthcare Professional Knowledge of Radiation Protection (HPKRP) self-evaluation scale, which was designed to measure the knowledge level of radiation protection by healthcare professionals working with ionising radiation in a clinical environment.

Methods: The presented research employed a cross-sectional study design. Data were collected from eight Finnish hospitals in 2017. A total of 252 eligible nurses responded to the newly developed HPKRP scale. The face and content validity were tested with the Content Validity Index (CVI). Explorative factor analysis was used to test construct validity, whereas reliability was tested with Cronbach’s alpha.

Results: Overall S-CVI for the HPKRP scale was 0.83. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor model for the HcPCRP scale containing 33 items. The first factor was defined by Radiation physics and principles of radiation usage, the second factor by Radiation protection, and the third factor by Guidelines of safe ionising radiation usage. These three factors explained 72% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the scale ranged from 0.93 to 0.96.

Conclusion: The results provide strong evidence for the validity and reliability of the HPKRP scale. Additionally, educators can use the scale to evaluate healthcare students’ understanding in radiation safety before and after education.

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Series: Radiography
ISSN: 1078-8174
ISSN-E: 1532-2831
ISSN-L: 1078-8174
Volume: 25
Issue: 2
Pages: 136 - 142
DOI: 10.1016/j.radi.2018.12.010
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 316 Nursing
Copyright information: © 2018 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license