University of Oulu

Kemppainen, L., Koivumäki, T., Pikkarainen, M., Poikola, A. (2019). Emerging revenue models for personal data platform operators: when individuals are in control of their data. Journal of business models (6)3: 79-105.

Emerging revenue models for personal data platform operators : when individuals are in control of their data

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Author: Kemppainen, Laura1; Koivumäki, Timo2,3; Pikkarainen, Minna2,3,4;
Organizations: 1Oulu Business School, Martti Ahtisaari Institute of Global Business and Economics at University of Oulu
2Martti Ahtisaari Institute of Global Business and Economics, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu
3VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
4Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu
5Helsinki Institute for Information Technology
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Aalborg University, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-04-15


Purpose: This paper identifies emerging revenue models for personal data platform operators that facilitate the exchange of resources between an individual and a service provider for their mutual benefit. Context of this study is human-centered personal data management, which refers to individuals being able to control the use and access of their personal data for third-party services.

Design: This research is conducted by analysing qualitative questionnaire data from 27 organizations from 12 different countries that are considered as forerunners in creating services in this context.

Findings: Our study shows that personal data platform operators can generate revenue by combining transaction-, service-, connection- and membership fees. The study also reveals context-specific propositions for the foundation of revenue model creation. Monetising personal data in the form of advertising like we know it today is explicitly avoided among personal data platform operators.

Research limitations/implications: This study calls for further research about how does providing control over personal data to individuals influence on business models of platform operators and other service providers in the market.

Practical implications: For practitioners, this research offers new insights on revenue models that are being developed by the forerunners of human-centered personal data management approach in the European market.

Originality/value: Revenue models for personal data platform operators when taking a human-centered approach to personal data management. Propositions to consider when creating revenue models in this context.

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Series: Journal of business models
ISSN: 2246-2465
ISSN-E: 2246-2465
ISSN-L: 2246-2465
Volume: 6
Issue: 3
Pages: 79 - 105
DOI: 10.5278/ojs.jbm.v6i3.2053
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Funding: This research has been supported by a grant from Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation as part of Digital Health Revolution programme.
Copyright information: Articles published in Journal of Business Models follow the license Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0). Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License: Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivs (by-nc-nd).