University of Oulu

Xinying Shi, Zhongjia Huang, Miku J. Laakso, Frank Niklaus, Rafal Sliz, Tapio Fabritius, Mahesh Somani, Tun Nyo, Xiao Wang, Meng Zhang, Gang Wang, Jukka Kömi, Marko Huttula, Wei Cao, Quantitative assessment of structural and compositional colors induced by femtosecond laser: A case study on 301LN stainless steel surface, Applied Surface Science, Volume 484, 2019, Pages 655-662, ISSN 0169-4332,

Quantitative assessment of structural and compositional colors induced by femtosecond laser : a case study on 301LN stainless steel surface

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Author: Shi, Xinying1,2; Huang, Zhongjia3; Laakso, Miku J.4;
Organizations: 1School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China
2Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
3School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000, China
4Department of Micro and Nanosystems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
5Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
6Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu, Finland
7Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2021-04-14


The topic of durable coloration and passivation of metal surfaces using state-of-the-art techniques has gained enormous attention and devotion with unremitting efforts of researchers worldwide. Although femtosecond laser marking has been performed on many metals, the related coloration mechanisms are mainly referred to structural colors produced by the interaction of visible light with periodic surface structures. Yet, general quantitative determination of the resulting colors and their origins remain elusive. In this work, we realized quantitative separations of structural colors and compositional pigmentary colors on 301LN austenitic stainless steel surfaces that were treated by femtosecond laser machining. The overall color information was extracted from surface reflectance, with structural color given by numerical simulations, and oxide compositions by chemical state analysis. It was shown that the laser-induced apparent colors of 301LN steel surfaces were combinations of structural and compositional colorations, with the former dominating the angular response and the latter setting up the brownish bases. In addition to the quantification of colors, the analysis method in this work may be useful for the generation and specification of tailored color palettes for practical coloration on metal surfaces by femtosecond laser marking.

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Series: Applied surface science
ISSN: 0169-4332
ISSN-E: 1873-5584
ISSN-L: 0169-4332
Volume: 484
Pages: 655 - 662
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.04.147
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
221 Nanotechnology
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the financial supports from the Academy of Finland (No. 311934, No. 296890), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51704001), Natural Science and Technology Major Project of Anhui Province (No. 18030901035) and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) (GMT14-0071).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 296890
Detailed Information: 296890 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license