University of Oulu

Toni Varila, Henrik Romar, Tero Luukkonen, Ulla Lassi. Physical activation and characterization of tannin-based foams enforced with boric acid and zinc chloride. AIMS Materials Science, 2019, 6(2): 301-314. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2019.2.301

Physical activation and characterization of tannin-based foams enforced with boric acid and zinc chloride

Saved in:
Author: Varila, Toni1,2; Romar, Henrik1; Luukkonen, Tero3;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014, Finland
2Applied Chemistry, University of Jyvaskyla, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, P.O. Box 567, FI-67101 Kokkola, Finland
3Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, FI-90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: AIMS Press, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-04-29


In this study, tannin-furanic-based foams enforced with H3BO3 and ZnCl2 are investigated, as well as their properties such as mechanical strength, specific surface area, and pore size distribution. From an industrial point of view, the aforementioned properties of these foams play a key role when used as catalyst, adsorbent, or gas storing materials. Therefore, this study aims to prove that such enforced tannin-furanic foams are promising materials for these types of applications. According to the results, materials that are up to five times stronger can be achieved by carbonizing the foams in comparison to maturing them. With physical activation, it was possible to obtain a specific surface area as high as 845 m2/g with a pore volume of up to 0.35 cm3/g. Chemical activation, using ZnCl2as the activating agent, produced a specific surface area and pore volume of 737 m2/g and 0.31 cm3/g. However,the pore sizes were mostly microporous, independently of activation procedure used.

see all

Series: AIMS materials science
ISSN: 2372-0468
ISSN-E: 2372-0484
ISSN-L: 2372-0468
Volume: 6
Issue: 2
Pages: 301 - 314
DOI: 10.3934/matersci.2019.2.301
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: Toni Varila would like to thank the Green Bioraff Solutions Project (EU/Interre/Botnia-Atlantica, 20201508) for funding this research.
Copyright information: © 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (