University of Oulu

Rautio, N., Varanka-Ruuska, T., Vaaramo, E., Palaniswamy, S., Nedelec, R., Miettunen, J., Karppinen, J., Auvinen, J., Järvelin, M., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Sebert, S., Ala-Mursula, L. (2017) Accumulated exposure to unemployment is related to impaired glucose metabolism in middle-aged men: A follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Primary Care Diabetes, 11 (4), 365-372. doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2017.03.010

Accumulated exposure to unemployment is related to impaired glucose metabolism in middle-aged men : a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

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Author: Rautio, Nina1,2; Varanka-Ruuska, Tuulia1,3; Vaaramo, Eeva1;
Organizations: 1Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Unit of Primary Health Care, Oulu University Hospital, OYS, P.O. Box 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland
3Kallio Primary Health Care Unit, Kirkkotie 4, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland
4Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
6Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Aapistie 1, 90220 Oulu, Finland
7MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, Praed Street Wing, St. Mary’s Campus, Paddington, W2 IPG London, United Kingdom
8Department of Genomics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 London, United Kingdom
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-05-07


Aims: We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.

Methods: Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (≤1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).

Results: Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p < 0.01). Among women, analogous figures for pre-diabetes were 10.0%, 12.6% and 16.2% and for screen-detected type 2 diabetes 1.7%, 3.4% and 3.6% (p < 0.01). Men with high exposure to unemployment had a higher risk for pre-diabetes (OR 1.61, CI 95% 1.03–2.51) and screen-detected type 2 diabetes (OR 2.58 95% CI 1.23–5.44) than employed men, after adjustment for education, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and body mass index. Among women, associations were attenuated in the adjusted models.

Conclusions: High exposure to unemployment may predispose to type 2 diabetes in middle-aged men. For clinicians, awareness of the patient’s unemployment status may be helpful in recognizing undiagnosed cases.

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Series: Primary care diabetes
ISSN: 1751-9918
ISSN-E: 1878-0210
ISSN-L: 1751-9918
Volume: 11
Issue: 4
Pages: 365 - 372
DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2017.03.010
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: NFBC1966 received financial support from University of Oulu [Grant no. 24000692]; Oulu University Hospital [Grant no. 24301140] and ERDF European Regional Development Fund [Grant no. 539/2010 A31592]. This project has received funding from the Academy of Finland [#268336] and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program [under grant agreement No. 633595] for the DynaHEALTH action.
EU Grant Number: (633595) DYNAHEALTH - Understanding the dynamic determinants of glucose homeostasis and social capability to promote Healthy and active aging
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 268336
Detailed Information: 268336 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (