University of Oulu

Natalia Bukhanko, Christopher Schwarz, Ajaikumar Samikannu, Tung Ngoc Pham, William Siljebo, Johan Wärnå, Andrey Shchukarev, Anne-Riikka Rautio, Krisztian Kordás, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Gas phase synthesis of isopropyl chloride from isopropanol and HCl over alumina and flexible 3-D carbon foam supported catalysts, Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 542, 2017, Pages 212-225, ISSN 0926-860X,

Gas phase synthesis of isopropyl chloride from isopropanol and HCl over alumina and flexible 3-D carbon foam supported catalysts

Saved in:
Author: Bukhanko, Natalia1,2; Schwarz, Christopher1,3; Samikannu, Ajaikumar1;
Organizations: 1Technical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Chemical-Biological Center, Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå, Sweden
2Department of Forest Biomaterials Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, SE-90183, Umeå, Sweden
3Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, DE-44801 Bochum, Germany
4Department of Chemistry, The University of Danang - University of Science and Technology, 54 Nguyen Luong Bang, Lien Chieu, Da Nang, Viet Nam
5Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500, Turku-Åbo, Finland
6Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, FI-90570, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-07-25


Isopropyl chloride synthesis from isopropanol and HCl in gas phase over ZnCl₂ catalysts supported on Al₂O₃ as well as flexible carbon foam was studied in a continuous reactor. A series of catalytic materials were synthesised and characterised by BET, XPS, SEM, TEM, XRD and NH₃-TPD methods. Catalytic activity tests (product selectivity and conversion of reactants) were performed for all materials and optimal reaction conditions (temperature and feedstock flow rates) were found. The results indicate that the highest yield of isopropyl chloride was obtained over 5 wt.% ZnCl₂ on commercial Al₂O₃ (No. II) (95.3%). Determination of product mixture compositions and by-product identification were done using a GC-MS method. Carbon foam variant catalyst, 5 wt.% ZnCl₂/C, was found to perform best out of the carbon-supported materials, achieving ∼75% yield of isopropyl chloride. The kinetic model describing the process in a continuous packed bed reactor was proposed and kinetic parameters were calculated. The activation energy for the formation of isopropyl chloride reaction directly from isopropanol and HCl was found to be ∼58 kJ/mol.

see all

Series: Applied catalysis. A, General
ISSN: 0926-860X
ISSN-E: 1873-3875
ISSN-L: 0926-860X
Volume: 542
Pages: 212 - 225
DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2017.05.013
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: The Bio4Energy Programme and Kempe Foundations are gratefully acknowledged for financial support. This work is also part of the activities of the Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre at Åbo Akademi University. The authors are grateful to Dr. Pasi Virtanen (Åbo Akademi, Finland) for his contribution in NH3-TPD measurements.
Copyright information: © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license