University of Oulu

Kotavaara, Ossi & Pohjosenperä, Timo & Rusanen, Jarmo (2018) Integrated location-allocation of private car and public transport users : primary health care facility allocation in the Oulu Region of Finland. In: Proceedings of the 21th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science, Lund 12-15 June, Sweden. AGILE 2018.

Integrated location-allocation of private car and public transport users : primary health care facility allocation in the Oulu Region of Finland

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Author: Kotavaara, Ossi1; Pohjosenperä, Timo2; Rusanen, Jarmo1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Geography Research Unit, Faculty of Science PO Box 3000 FI-90014, University of Oulu, Finland
2University of Oulu Department of Marketing, Management and International Business, Oulu Business School PO Box 4600 FI-90014, University of Oulu, Finland
Format: abstract
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Association of Geographic Information Laboratories In Europe, 2018
Publish Date: 2019-05-21


The Finnish healthcare system is currently under significant reorganization, and new service providers are accessing emerging markets. Easy and equal accesses to services are key factors for good-quality health care. Locally available services will also reduce the need for passenger car travel, if public transport may be easily used. Network accessibility-based location-allocation analyses are commonly applied to locating services in a normative manner with travel distance or car travel time attributes. Again, multimodal accessibility is often measured in a positive context. However, location-allocation analyses including simultaneously two or more separate travel mode layers are rarely conducted. This paper applies p-median type location-allocation analysis in geographic information systems (GIS) with network data including integrated public transport and car-user routing. The aim is to find new optimal sites for primary health care services by taking potential public transport travels into account, in addition to passenger car travels. A key part of the analysis is the time estimates of bus and walking routes, which are based on the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) and walkable road network. For location-allocation, potential, bus users are routed from home locations to all potential service locations via the fastest available transit connections within a defined time period. By connecting this connectivity matrix to car travel estimates, public transport and car travels may be integrated in the analysis. By integrating public transport and car travelling in location-allocation, the coverage and the efficiency of the service network in the Oulu and Kempele city regions may be developed in a way that is more favourable to public transport users.

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Pages: 1 - 8
Conference: The Association of Geographic Information Laboratories in Europe, AGILE
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
512 Business and management
Funding: The study was carried out in the project “Low carbon logistics in local social and health care services”, which is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) for the period 1.3.2018–29.2.2020. The work for this paper is supported also by the project “Improving the information base and optimising service solutions to support social welfare and health care reform (IMPRO)”, which is funded by the Strategic Research Council (SRC), for the period 1.1.2018–31.12.2020.
Copyright information: © The Authors and AGILE. Open access at