University of Oulu

Hyyppä, E., Jenei, M., Masuda, S., Sevriuk, V., Tan, K. Y., Silveri, M., … Möttönen, M. (2019). Calibration of cryogenic amplification chains using normal-metal–insulator–superconductor junctions. Applied Physics Letters, 114(19), 192603.

Calibration of cryogenic amplification chains using normal-metal–insulator–superconductor junctions

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Author: Hyyppä, E.1; Jenei, M.1; Masuda, S.1,2;
Organizations: 1QCD Labs, QTF Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
2College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Ichikawa 272-0827, Japan
3Center for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
4Research Unit of Nano and Molecular Systems, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, QFT Center of Excellence, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 Aalto, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Institute of Physics, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-05-22


Various applications of quantum devices call for an accurate calibration of cryogenic amplification chains. To this end, we present an experimentally feasible calibration scheme and use it to accurately measure the total gain and noise temperature of an amplification chain by employing normal-metal–insulator–superconductor (NIS) junctions. Our method is based on the radiation emitted by inelastic electron tunneling across voltage-biased NIS junctions. We derive an analytical expression that relates the generated power to the applied bias voltage which is the only control parameter of the device. After the setup has been characterized using a standard voltage reflection measurement, the total gain and the noise temperature are extracted by fitting the analytical expression to the microwave power measured at the output of the amplification chain. The 1σ uncertainty of the total gain of 51.84 dB appears to be of the order of 0.10 dB.

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Series: Applied physics letters
ISSN: 0003-6951
ISSN-E: 0003-6951
ISSN-L: 0003-6951
Volume: 114
Issue: 19
Article number: 192603
DOI: 10.1063/1.5096262
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under the Marie Skodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 795159 and under the European Research Council Consolidator Grant No. 681311 (QUESS), from the Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in Quantum Technology Grant No. 312300 and No. 305237, from JST ERATO Grant No. JPMJER1601, from JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 18K03486, and from the Vilho, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä Foundation. We acknowledge the provision of facilities and technical support by Aalto University at OtaNano - Micronova Nanofabrication Centre.
Copyright information: © 2019 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (