University of Oulu

Koldobskiy, S. A., Bindi, V., Corti, C., Kovaltsov, G. A., & Usoskin, I. G. ( 2019). Validation of the neutron monitor yield function using data from AMS‐02 experiment, 2011–2017. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124, 2367– 2379.

Validation of the neutron monitor yield function using data from AMS‐02 experiment, 2011–2017

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Author: Koldobskiy, Sergey A.1,2; Bindi, Veronica3; Corti, Claudio3;
Organizations: 1Space Climate Research Unit and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Experimental Nuclear Physics and Cosmophysics, National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow, Russia
3Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
4Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-06-03


The newly published spectra of protons and helium over time directly measured in space by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS‐02) experiment for the period 2011–2017 provide a unique opportunity to calibrate ground‐based neutron monitors (NMs). Here, calibration of several stable sea level NMs (Inuvik, Apatity, Oulu, Newark, Moscow, Hermanus, and Athens) was performed using these spectra. Four modern NM yield functions were verified: Mi13 (Mishev et al., 2013,, Ma16 (Mangeard et al., 2016,, CM12 (Caballero‐Lopez & Moraal, 2012,, and CD00 (Clem & Dorman, 2000,, on the basis of the cosmic ray spectra measured by AMS‐02. The Mi13 yield function was found to realistically represent the NM response to galactic cosmic rays. CM12 yield function leads to a small skew in the solar cycle dependence of the scaling factor. In contrast, Ma16 and CD00 yield functions tend to overestimate the NM sensitivity to low‐rigidity (<10 GV) cosmic rays. This effect may be important for an analysis of ground level enhancements, leading to a potential underestimate of fluxes of solar energetic particles as based on NM data. The Mi13 yield function is recommended for quantitative analyses of NM data, especially for ground level enhancements. The validity of the force field approximation was studied, and it was found that it fits well the directly measured proton spectra, within a few percent for periods of low to moderate activity and up to ≈10% for active periods. The results of this work strengthen and validate the method of the cosmic ray variability analysis based on the NM data and yield function formalism and improve its accuracy.

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Series: Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
ISSN: 2169-9380
ISSN-E: 2169-9402
ISSN-L: 2169-9380
Volume: 124
Issue: 4
Pages: 2367 - 2379
DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026340
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was partially supported bythe ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence (Academy of Finland, project 272157), by National Science Foundation Career Award under grant (NSF AGS-1455202); Wyle Laboratories, Inc. under grant NAS 9-02078; NASA under grant 17-SDMSS17-0012; and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 18-32-00062) and MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (contract 02.a03.21.0005).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 272157
Detailed Information: 272157 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2019. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.