University of Oulu

Varila, T., Romar, H. & Lassi, U. Top Catal (2019) 62: 764.

Catalytic effect of transition metals (copper, iron, and nickel) on the foaming and properties of sugar-based carbon foams

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Author: Varila, Toni1,2; Romar, Henrik1; Lassi, Ulla1,2
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2University of Jyvaskyla, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, Applied Chemistry, P.O. Box 567, FI-67101 Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-06-14


Recently, bio-based carbon foams have gained much interest in many chemical industry fields because of their unique structure and properties. This study provides new information on the effects of catalytic metals (iron, nickel, and copper) on the foaming process. Specifically, the effects of these catalysts on the density, foam growth, and cell size and then further on the pore size distribution and specific surface areas after the physical activation are considered. Furthermore, some of the activated sugar foams were used in adsorption tests using methylene blue as adsorbent. Results showed that the highest effect on foam density was obtained using the iron catalyst in the foaming process. In addition, increasing the iron amount, the development of micro-pores decreased from 95.2 to 60.3% after cabonization and activation of the foams. Nickel and iron had the highest and lowest effect on foam rise at 1375 and 500%, respectively. Interestingly, when the nickel catalyst was used, cell sizes and surface areas two times larger than those when the foams were prepared with the iron and copper catalysts was obtained. The specific surface area of activated sugar-based carbon foams changed significantly with the increased copper amount inside the foaming solution in compared with iron or nickel catalyst. Methylene blue adsorption capacity of additional series of activated sugar foams decreased from 28 to 9% when meso-pore amount decreased.

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Series: Topics in catalysis
ISSN: 1022-5528
ISSN-E: 1572-9028
ISSN-L: 1022-5528
Volume: 62
Issue: 7-11
Pages: 764 - 772
DOI: 10.1007/s11244-019-01171-4
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. Toni Varila would like to thank the Green Bioraff Solutions Project (EU/Interreg/Botnia-Atlantica, 20201508) for funding this research.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creat ivecommons .org/licen ses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.