University of Oulu

Pöykiö, Risto & Grönvall, Mika & Watkins, Gary & Välimäki, Ilkka & Perämäki, Paavo & Dahl, Olli (2019) Characterisation of used traction sand for utilization aspects in earth construction based on the requirements of Finnish environmental legislation. Geology, Geophysics & Environment 45(2): 99-109. DOI: 10.7494/geol.2019.45.2.99

Characterisation of used traction sand for utilization aspects in earth construction based on the requirements of Finnish environmental legislation

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Author: Pöykiö, Risto1; Grönvall, Mika2; Watkins, Gary3;
Organizations: 1Department of Environmental Protection; City of Kemi, Valtakatu 26, 94100 Kemi, Finland
2Department of Civil Engineering; City of Kemi, Valtakatu 26, 94100 Kemi, Finland
3Clean Technology Research Group, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University; P.O.Box 16300, Vuorimiehentie 1, 00076 Aalto, Finland
4Eurofins Ahma Oy; Sammonkatu 8, 90570 Oulu, Finland
5Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu; Erkki Koiso-Kanttilankatu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: AGH University of Science and Technology Press, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-06-24


Finland launched a new Government Decree, the so-called MARA-regulation, on the utilization of certain wastes in earth construction on 1.1.2018. This statutory regulation sets limit values for the solubility of heavy metals (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn, V, Hg), chloride, sulphate, fluoride and dissolved organic carbon, as well as for organic substance (petroleum hydrocarbons, benzene, naphthalene, TEX (toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), PAH-, phenolic- and PCB-compounds). In this case study, the concentrations of these harmful substances in the used traction sand collected in the city of Kemi, Northern Finland, were lower than their limit values set in the MARA-regulation. Therefore, this residue is a potential material to be used at earth construction sites such as in roads and roadways, in field and embankment structures, as well as in floor structures of industrial or storage buildings. However, if the used traction sand is to be utilized for these kinds of civil engineering purposes, an environmental permit is still needed because this material is not yet included in the scope of the MARA-regulation. This paper also gives an overview of the relevant Finnish environmental legislation on the utilization of wastes as an earth construction material.

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Series: Geology, geophysics & environment
ISSN: 2299-8004
ISSN-E: 2353-0790
ISSN-L: 2299-8004
Volume: 45
Issue: 2
Pages: 99 - 109
DOI: 10.7494/geol.2019.45.2.99
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Copyright information: © 2019 Authors. This is an open access publication, which can be used, distributed and reproduced in any medium according to the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License requiring that the original work has been properly cited.