Rietschel, L., Streit, F., Zhu, G., McAloney, K., … Frank, J. (2017). Hair Cortisol in Twins: Heritability and Genetic Overlap with Psychological Variables and Stress-System Genes. Scientific Reports, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11852-3
Hair cortisol in twins : heritability and genetic overlap with psychological variables and stress-system genes
|Author:||Rietschel, Liz1,2; Streit, Fabian3; Zhu, Gu4;|
1University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Research Department, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
2SRH University Heidelberg, Academy for Psychotherapy, Heidelberg, Germany
3Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
4Genetics & Computational Biology Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
5Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
6Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, Centre for Forensic Hair Analysis, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
7Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia
8National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
9Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
10Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
11Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
12Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
13Life & Brain Center, Department of Genomics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
14Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
15Human Genomics Research Group, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
16Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
17Institute of Psychiatric Phenomics and Genomics (IPPG), Medical Center of the University of Munich, Campus Innenstadt, Munich, DE, Germany
18Human Genetics Branch, NIMH Division of Intramural Research Programs, Bethesda, USA
19Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Goettingen, DE, Germany
20Institute of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
21British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
22Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2019062822296
|Publish Date:|| 2019-06-28
Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors. However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism; using formal genetic twin models and molecular genetic methods, i.e. polygenic risk scores (PRS). HCC was measured in 671 adolescents and young adults. These included 115 monozygotic and 183 dizygotic twin-pairs. For 432 subjects PRS scores for plasma cortisol, major depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance in HCC. The present data suggest that HCC is highly heritable. However, the data do not support a strong biological link between HCC and any of the investigated psychological variables.
CORtisolNETwork (CORNET) Consortium
Jennifer L. Bolton21
James F. Wilson26
Sarah H. Wild26
Fleur P. Velders24
Andre G. Uitterlinden24,27
Johan G. Eriksson29,32,33,34,35
Nicholas J. Timpson40
George Davey Smith40
Susan M. Ring41
David M. Evans40
Beate St Pourcain41
Pim van der Harst45,46,47
Judith GM Rosmalen48
Stephen JL Bakker49
Robin PF Dullaart49
Cecilia M. Lindgren50
Laura N. Anderson52
Craig E. Pennell53
Stephen J. Lye52
Stephen G. Matthews54
Jackie F. Price26
Mark WJ Strachan21
Rebecca M. Reynolds21
Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)
Mark J. Adams65
Tracy M. Air68
Till FM Andlauer69,70
Aartjan TF Beekman43
David A. Bennett73
Tim B. Bigdeli71,11
Enda M. Byrne5
Jonathan RI Coleman77
Eco. J. C. de Geus64,84
Philip De Jager85
Ian J. Deary83
Erin C. Dunn86,87,88
Erik A. Ehli82
Thalia C. Eley77
Hilary K. Finucane93,94
Scott D. Gordon96
Lynsey S. Hall65,98
Thomas F. Hansen99,100
Christine Søholm Hansen67,72
Thomas F. Hansen101
Andrew C. Heath102
Anjali K. Henders5
Jouke- Jan Hottenga64
James A Knowles110
Warren W. Kretzschmar50
Donald J. MacIntyre115,116
Pamela AF Madden102
Christel M. Middeldorp64
Grant W. Montgomery122
Dale R. Nyholt128
Michael C. O’Donovan129
Paul F. O’Reilly77
Michael J. Owen129
Sara A. Paciga131
Carsten Bøcker Pedersen66,67,8
Marianne Giørtz Pedersen66,67,8
Nancy L. Pedersen132
Michele L. Pergadia133
Roseann E. Peterson11,71
Wouter J. Peyrot43
David J. Porteous135
James B. Potash138
Jorge A. Quiroz139
John P. Rice102
Brien P. Riley71
Douglas M. Ruderfer141
Saira Saeed Mirza24
Grant CB Sinnamon145
Johannes H. Smit43
Daniel J. Smith146
Jordan W. Smoller86
Katherine E. Tansey148
Pippa A. Thomson135
Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson147
Sandra van der Auwera155
Gerard van Grootheest43
Albert M. van Hemert156
Bradley T. Webb157
Myrna M. Weissman158,159
Hualin S. Xi160
Bernhard T. Baune68
Douglas H. R. Blackwood65
Dorret I. Boomsma64
Anders D. Børglum61,62,67
Henriette N. Buttenschøn62,67,161
Hans J. Grabe155
Steven P. Hamilton167
Kenneth S. Kendler71
Qingqin S. Li168
Patrik K. Magnusson132
Andrew M. McIntosh65,83
Preben Bo Mortensen62,8,67
Brenda WJH Penninx43
Roy H. Perlis87,171
Jordan W. Smoller87,88
Ashley R. Winslow174,175
Douglas F. Levinson177
Cathryn M. Lewis77,178
Naomi R. Wray5,153
Patrick F. Sullivan134,179,180
23MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.
24Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
25Psychiatry, Dokuz Eylul University School Of Medicine, Izmir, TR, Turkey.
26Centre for Population Health Sciences, Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.
27Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, NL, Netherlands.
28Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
29National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
30Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
31Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki and University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
32Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
33Helsinki University Central Hospital, Unit of General Practice, Helsinki, Finland.
34Folkhalsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
35Vasa Central Hospital, Vasa, Finland.
36Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
37Department of Children and Yond People and Families, National Institute for Health and elfare, Oulu, Finland.
38Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.
39Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
40MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
41School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
42Longitudinal Studies Section, Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA.
43Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center/GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
44Geriatric Unit, ASF, Florence, Italy.
45University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, Netherlands.
46University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, Netherlands.
47Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, Netherlands.
48University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Interdisciplinary Center for Psychiatric Epidemiology, Groningen, Netherlands.
49University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine, Groningen, Netherlands.
50Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
51Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
52Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
53School of Women’s and Infant’s Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
54Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
55Center for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicin, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
56Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
57Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
58Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, USA.
59Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.
60Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany.
61Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
62iSEQ, Centre for Integrative Sequencing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
63iSPYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Aarhus, Denmark.
64Dept of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
65Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
66Centre for Integrated Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
67iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Aarhus, Denmark.
68Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
69Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
70Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany.
71Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
72Center for Neonatal Screening, Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
73Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, USA.
74Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Muenster, Muenster, UK.
75Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK.
76Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Lausanne, Prilly, Switzerland.
77MRC Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King’s College London, London, UK.
78University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
79Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
80Department of Psychiatry, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
81Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
82Avera Institute for Human Genetics, Sioux Falls, USA.
83Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
84EMGO+ Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
85Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, USA.
86Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, USA.
87Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.
88Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit (PNGU), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.
89Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
90Division of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, USA.
91Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
92Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
93Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA.
94Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
95Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
96Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.
97Bioinformatics Research Centre (BiRC), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
98Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
99Danish Headache Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.
100Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Mental Health Center Sct. Hans, Mental Health Services Capital Region of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.
101iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Psychiatric Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
102Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, Saint Louis, USA.
103Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Department of Functional Genomics, University Medicine and Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
104Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.
105Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
106Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
107Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, USA.
108Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.
109Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
110Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
111Department of Endocrinology at Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
112Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.
113Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
114Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK.
115Mental Health NHS 24, Glasgow, UK.
116Division of Psychiatry, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
117Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
118EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
119School of Psychology and Counseling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
120Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
121Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia.
122Institute for Molecular Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
123Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
124Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
125DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Greifswald, University Medicine, Matthias Nauck, Greifswald, Germany.
126Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
127Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen Universtity Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
128Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
129MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
130Humus, Reykjavik, Iceland.
131Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, USA.
132Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
133Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA.
134Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
135Medical Genetics Section, CGEM, IGMM, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
136Complex Trait Genetics, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
137Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
138Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.
139Solid GT, Boston, USA.
140Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Neurosciences, Center for Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
141Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.
142Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
143Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, USA.
144Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
145School of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.
146Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
147deCODE Genetics/Amgen, Reykjavik, Iceland.
148College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
149Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
150iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
151KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norway Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
152Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, USA.
153Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
154Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Rare Diseases Discovery & Translational Medicine Area, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.
155Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
156Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
157Virginia Institute of Psychiatric & Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
158Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA.
159Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA.
160Computational Sciences Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, USA.
161Department of Clinical Medicine, Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
162Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Center Juelich, Juelich, Germany.
163Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, CH, Switzerland.
164Division of Medical Genetics, University of Basel, Basel, CH, Switzerland.
165Centre for Integrative Biology, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, Italy.
166Psychiatry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA.
167Psychiatry, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco, USA.
168Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Titusville, USA.
169Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Aarhus, Denmark.
170Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
171Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
172Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
173Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
174Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, USA.
175Orphan Disease Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
176NIHR BRC for Mental Health, King’s College London, London, UK.
177Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.
178Department of Medical & Molecular Genetics, King’s College London, London, UK.
179Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
180Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
BCD is supported by a University of Queensland International scholarship. LCC is supported by a QIMR Berghofer fellowship. The CORtisol NETwork Consortium was funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government (grant CZB-4–733) and the British Heart Foundation (grant RG11/4/28734). Andrew Crawford is funded by the Welcome Trust (Senior Investigator Award to BR Walker; 107049/Z/15/Z). Funding for the collection of twin hair samples was provided by Australian NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council (AU)) grants to NGM (APP1049911) and to MJW (APP1009064). Hair cortisol assays were funded by a grant to MR from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), through the Integrated Network IntegraMent (Integrated Understanding of Causes and Mechanisms in Mental Disorders, grant BMBF01ZX1314G, BMBF01ZX1614G), under the auspices of the e:Med Programme.
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