University of Oulu

Rietschel, L., Streit, F., Zhu, G., McAloney, K., … Frank, J. (2017). Hair Cortisol in Twins: Heritability and Genetic Overlap with Psychological Variables and Stress-System Genes. Scientific Reports, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11852-3

Hair cortisol in twins : heritability and genetic overlap with psychological variables and stress-system genes

Saved in:
Author: Rietschel, Liz1,2; Streit, Fabian3; Zhu, Gu4;
Organizations: 1University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Research Department, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
2SRH University Heidelberg, Academy for Psychotherapy, Heidelberg, Germany
3Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
4Genetics & Computational Biology Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia
5Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
6Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, Centre for Forensic Hair Analysis, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
7Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia
8National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
9Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
10Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
11Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
12Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
13Life & Brain Center, Department of Genomics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
14Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
15Human Genomics Research Group, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
16Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA
17Institute of Psychiatric Phenomics and Genomics (IPPG), Medical Center of the University of Munich, Campus Innenstadt, Munich, DE, Germany
18Human Genetics Branch, NIMH Division of Intramural Research Programs, Bethesda, USA
19Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Göttingen, Goettingen, DE, Germany
20Institute of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
21British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
22Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2019062822296
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-06-28
Description:

Abstract

Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors.However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism; using formal genetic twin models and molecular genetic methods, i.e. polygenic risk scores (PRS). HCC was measured in 671 adolescents and young adults. These included 115 monozygotic and 183 dizygotic twin-pairs. For 432 subjects PRS scores for plasma cortisol, major depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance in HCC. The present data suggest that HCC is highly heritable. However, the data do not support a strong biological link between HCC and any of the investigated psychological variables.

see all

Consortia

CORtisolNETwork (CORNET) Consortium

Jennifer L. Bolton21

Caroline Hayward23

Nese Direk24,25

Anna Anderson21

Jennifer Huffman23

James F. Wilson26

Harry Campbell26

Igor Rudan26

Alan Wright23

Nicholas Hastie23

Sarah H. Wild26

Fleur P. Velders24

Albert Hofman24

Andre G. Uitterlinden24,27

Jari Lahti28

Katri Räikkönen28

Eero Kajantie29

Elisabeth Widen30

Aarno Palotie30,31

Johan G. Eriksson29,32,33,34,35

Marika Kaakinen36

Marjo-Riitta Järvelin36,37,38,39

Nicholas J. Timpson40

George Davey Smith40

Susan M. Ring41

David M. Evans40

Beate St Pourcain41

Toshiko Tanaka42

Yuri Milaneschi42,43

Stefania Bandinelli44

Luigi Ferrucci42

Pim van der Harst45,46,47

Judith GM Rosmalen48

Stephen JL Bakker49

Niek Verweij45

Robin PF Dullaart49

Anubha Mahajan50

Cecilia M. Lindgren50

Andrew Morris50

Lars Lind51

Erik Ingelsson51

Laura N. Anderson52

Craig E. Pennell53

Stephen J. Lye52

Stephen G. Matthews54

Joel Eriksson55

Dan Mellstrom55

Claes Ohlsson55

Jackie F. Price26

Mark WJ Strachan21

Rebecca M. Reynolds21

Henning Tiemeier24,56,57

Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)

Stephan Ripke58,59,60

Manuel Mattheisen61,62,63

Abdel Abdellaoui64

Mark J. Adams65

Esben Agerbo66,8,67

Tracy M. Air68

Till FM Andlauer69,70

Silviu-Alin Bacanu71

Marie Bækvad-Hansen67,72

Aartjan TF Beekman43

David A. Bennett73

Klaus Berger74

Tim B. Bigdeli71,11

Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm67,72

Enda M. Byrne5

Na Cai75

Enrique Castelao76

Toni-Kim Clarke65

Jonathan RI Coleman77

Converge Consortium78

Nick Craddock79

Udo Dannlowski80,81

Gareth Davies82

Gail Davies83

Eco. J. C. de Geus64,84

Philip De Jager85

Ian J. Deary83

Franziska Degenhardt12,13

Erin C. Dunn86,87,88

Erik A. Ehli82

Thalia C. Eley77

Valentina Escott-Price89

Tõnu Esko58,90,91,92

Hilary K. Finucane93,94

Michael Gill95

Scott D. Gordon96

Jakob Grove61,62,67,97

Lynsey S. Hall65,98

Thomas F. Hansen99,100

Christine Søholm Hansen67,72

Thomas F. Hansen101

Andrew C. Heath102

Anjali K. Henders5

Stefan Herms12,13,15

Per Hoffmann12,13,15

Georg Homuth103

Carsten Horn104

Jouke- Jan Hottenga64

David Hougaard67,72

Hailiang Huang59,86,105

Marcus Ising106

Rick Jansen43

Eric Jorgenson107

Stefan Kloiber108,109

James A Knowles110

Warren W. Kretzschmar50

Jesper Krogh111

Zoltán Kutalik112,113

Maren Lang3

Glyn Lewis114

Yihan Li50

Donald J. MacIntyre115,116

Pamela AF Madden102

Jonathan Marchine117

Hamdi Mbarek118,64

Peter McGuffin77

Divya Mehta119

Andres Metspalu92,120

Christel M. Middeldorp64

Evelin Mihailov92,121

Lili Milani92

Grant W. Montgomery122

Sara Mostafavi123,124

Niamh Mullins77

Matthias Nauck125,126

Bernard Ng124

Merete Nordentoft67,127

Dale R. Nyholt128

Michael C. O’Donovan129

Paul F. O’Reilly77

Hogni Oskarsson130

Michael J. Owen129

Sara A. Paciga131

Carsten Bøcker Pedersen66,67,8

Marianne Giørtz Pedersen66,67,8

Nancy L. Pedersen132

Michele L. Pergadia133

Roseann E. Peterson11,71

Erik Pettersson134

Wouter J. Peyrot43

David J. Porteous135

Danielle Posthuma136,137

James B. Potash138

Jorge A. Quiroz139

John P. Rice102

Brien P. Riley71

Margarita Rivera77,140

Douglas M. Ruderfer141

Saira Saeed Mirza24

Robert Schoevers142

Ling Shen107

Jianxin Shi143

Engilbert Sigurdsson144

Grant CB Sinnamon145

Johannes H. Smit43

Daniel J. Smith146

Jordan W. Smoller86

Hreinn Stephansson147

Stacy Steinberg147

Jana Strohmaier3

Katherine E. Tansey148

Alexander Teumer149

Wesley Thompson100,135,150,151,152

Pippa A. Thomson135

Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson147

Jens Treutlein3

Maciej Trzaskowski153

Daniel Umbricht154

Sandra van der Auwera155

Gerard van Grootheest43

Albert M. van Hemert156

Alexander Viktorin132

Henry Völzke149

Yunpeng Wang67,100,151

Bradley T. Webb157

Myrna M. Weissman158,159

Jürgen Wellmann74

Gonneke Willemsen64

Hualin S. Xi160

Bernhard T. Baune68

Douglas H. R. Blackwood65

Dorret I. Boomsma64

Anders D. Børglum61,62,67

Henriette N. Buttenschøn62,67,161

Sven Cichon12,162,163,164

Enrico Domenici165

Jonathan Flint50,166

Hans J. Grabe155

Steven P. Hamilton167

Kenneth S. Kendler71

Qingqin S. Li168

Susanne Lucae106

Patrik K. Magnusson132

Andrew M. McIntosh65,83

Ole Mors67,169

Preben Bo Mortensen62,8,67

Bertram Müller-Myhsok69,70,170

Brenda WJH Penninx43

Roy H. Perlis87,171

Martin Preisig76

Catherine Schaefer107

Jordan W. Smoller87,88

Kari Stephansson147

Henning Tiemeier24,56,57

Rudolf Uher172

Thomas Werge100,150,173

Ashley R. Winslow174,175

Gerome Breen77,176

Douglas F. Levinson177

Cathryn M. Lewis77,178

Naomi R. Wray5,153

Patrick F. Sullivan134,179,180

23MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.

24Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

25Psychiatry, Dokuz Eylul University School Of Medicine, Izmir, TR, Turkey.

26Centre for Population Health Sciences, Institute for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.

27Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, NL, Netherlands.

28Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

29National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

30Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

31Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki and University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

32Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

33Helsinki University Central Hospital, Unit of General Practice, Helsinki, Finland.

34Folkhalsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.

35Vasa Central Hospital, Vasa, Finland.

36Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

37Department of Children and Yond People and Families, National Institute for Health and elfare, Oulu, Finland.

38Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

39Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

40MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

41School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

42Longitudinal Studies Section, Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA.

43Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center/GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

44Geriatric Unit, ASF, Florence, Italy.

45University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, Netherlands.

46University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, Netherlands.

47Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, Netherlands.

48University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Interdisciplinary Center for Psychiatric Epidemiology, Groningen, Netherlands.

49University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine, Groningen, Netherlands.

50Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

51Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

52Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

53School of Women’s and Infant’s Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.

54Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

55Center for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicin, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

56Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

57Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

58Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, USA.

59Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

60Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany.

61Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

62iSEQ, Centre for Integrative Sequencing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

63iSPYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Aarhus, Denmark.

64Dept of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

65Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

66Centre for Integrated Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

67iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Aarhus, Denmark.

68Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

69Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

70Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany.

71Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.

72Center for Neonatal Screening, Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

73Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, USA.

74Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Muenster, Muenster, UK.

75Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK.

76Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Lausanne, Prilly, Switzerland.

77MRC Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, King’s College London, London, UK.

78University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

79Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

80Department of Psychiatry, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

81Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

82Avera Institute for Human Genetics, Sioux Falls, USA.

83Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

84EMGO+ Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

85Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, USA.

86Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, USA.

87Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

88Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit (PNGU), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

89Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

90Division of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, USA.

91Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

92Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

93Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA.

94Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.

95Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

96Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

97Bioinformatics Research Centre (BiRC), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

98Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

99Danish Headache Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.

100Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Mental Health Center Sct. Hans, Mental Health Services Capital Region of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.

101iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Psychiatric Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.

102Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, Saint Louis, USA.

103Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Department of Functional Genomics, University Medicine and Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

104Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.

105Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

106Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

107Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, USA.

108Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.

109Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

110Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.

111Department of Endocrinology at Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

112Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.

113Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

114Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK.

115Mental Health NHS 24, Glasgow, UK.

116Division of Psychiatry, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

117Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

118EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

119School of Psychology and Counseling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

120Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

121Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia.

122Institute for Molecular Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

123Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

124Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

125DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Greifswald, University Medicine, Matthias Nauck, Greifswald, Germany.

126Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

127Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen Universtity Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

128Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

129MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

130Humus, Reykjavik, Iceland.

131Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, USA.

132Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

133Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA.

134Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

135Medical Genetics Section, CGEM, IGMM, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

136Complex Trait Genetics, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

137Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

138Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.

139Solid GT, Boston, USA.

140Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Neurosciences, Center for Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

141Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.

142Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

143Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, USA.

144Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

145School of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

146Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

147deCODE Genetics/Amgen, Reykjavik, Iceland.

148College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

149Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

150iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.

151KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norway Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

152Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, USA.

153Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

154Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Rare Diseases Discovery & Translational Medicine Area, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.

155Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

156Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

157Virginia Institute of Psychiatric & Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.

158Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA.

159Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA.

160Computational Sciences Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, USA.

161Department of Clinical Medicine, Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

162Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Center Juelich, Juelich, Germany.

163Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, CH, Switzerland.

164Division of Medical Genetics, University of Basel, Basel, CH, Switzerland.

165Centre for Integrative Biology, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, Italy.

166Psychiatry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA.

167Psychiatry, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco, USA.

168Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Janssen Research and Development, LLC, Titusville, USA.

169Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Aarhus, Denmark.

170Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

171Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

172Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

173Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

174Human Genetics and Computational Biomedicine, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, USA.

175Orphan Disease Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

176NIHR BRC for Mental Health, King’s College London, London, UK.

177Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, USA.

178Department of Medical & Molecular Genetics, King’s College London, London, UK.

179Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.

180Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.

see all

Series: Scientific reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
ISSN-E: 2045-2322
ISSN-L: 2045-2322
Volume: 7
Issue: 1
Article number: 15351
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11852-3
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11852-3
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3111 Biomedicine
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Subjects:
Funding: BCD is supported by a University of Queensland International scholarship. LCC is supported by a QIMR Berghofer fellowship. The CORtisol NETwork Consortium was funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government (grant CZB-4–733) and the British Heart Foundation (grant RG11/4/28734). Andrew Crawford is funded by the Welcome Trust (Senior Investigator Award to BR Walker; 107049/Z/15/Z). Funding for the collection of twin hair samples was provided by Australian NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council (AU)) grants to NGM (APP1049911) and to MJW (APP1009064). Hair cortisol assays were funded by a grant to MR from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), through the Integrated Network IntegraMent (Integrated Understanding of Causes and Mechanisms in Mental Disorders, grant BMBF01ZX1314G, BMBF01ZX1614G), under the auspices of the e:Med Programme.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2017. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/