University of Oulu

Ali, M., Eissa, M., El Faramawy, H., Porter, D., Komi, J., El-Shahat, M.F. and Mattar, T. (2017) Electroslag Refining of CrNiMoWMnV Ultrahigh-Strength Steel. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 5, 385-407.

Electroslag refining of CrNiMoWMnV ultrahigh-strength steel

Saved in:
Author: Ali, Mohammed1,2; Eissa, Mamdouh2; El Faramawy, Hoda2;
Organizations: 1Materials Engineering and Production Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo, Egypt
3Chemistry Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Scientific Research Publishing, 2017
Publish Date: 2019-07-02


Increasing demands for ultrahigh-strength steels in commercial as well as military applications have raised interest in finding alternatives to the high-cost high-alloyed steel and super-alloys currently used, e.g. the use of economic low-alloy compositions processed via low-cost air induction melting and electroslag refining (ESR). In this work the yield of alloying elements and the removal of the impurities nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus as a result of electroslag refining (ESR) in a newly developed CrNiMoWMnV ultrahigh-strength steel (UHSS) have been studied in relation to their activities in the molten metal pool. Six experimental heats of CrNiMoWMnV UHSS with different chemical compositions were designed, melted in an induction furnace (IF) and refined using ESR. This was followed by hot forging of the ingots at 1100˚C to 950˚C. ESR using a CaF₂-CaO-Al₂O₃ slag system led to a high yield in Cr, Ni, Mo, W, Mn and V, while the yield of Si is low. The desulphurization of all six UHSS grades was pronounced with most of the sulphur removed either to the slag or by gas reactions. The degree of dephosphorization was only 5% irrespective of the steel composition. On the other hand, denitrification (removal of nitrogen) was achieved. It ranged from 8% to 63% depending on the steel composition. The yield of the alloying elements and removal of impurities from the steel during ESR depends on the chemical and physical properties of the ESR slag and the activity of the elements in the molten state, taking into account elemental interactions.

see all

Series: Journal of minerals and materials characterization and engineering
ISSN: 2327-4077
ISSN-E: 2327-4085
ISSN-L: 2327-4077
Volume: 5
Issue: 6
Pages: 385 - 407
DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2017.56032
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education (Cultural Affairs and Missions Sector) for the financial support during this work.
Copyright information: Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0).