University of Oulu

Ramasetti, E. K., Visuri, V. , Sulasalmi, P. , Mattila, R. and Fabritius, T. (2019), Modeling of the Effect of the Gas Flow Rate on the Fluid Flow and Open‐Eye Formation in a Water Model of a Steelmaking Ladle. steel research int., 90: 1800365. doi:10.1002/srin.201800365

Modeling of the effect of the gas flow rate on the fluid flow and open‐eye formation in a water model of a steelmaking ladle

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Author: Ramasetti, Eshwar Kumar1; Visuri, Ville‐Valtteri1; Sulasalmi, Petri1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300 FI 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Publish Date: 2019-07-02


In ladle metallurgy of steelmaking, the role of gas injection into the metal bath is been studied to a great extent as it improves the quality of steel. The size of the open‐eye is associated with higher emulsification of top slag, which intensifies metal–slag reactions, and information about the position and size of the open‐eye is important for effective alloying practice. Moreover, the open‐eye has an effect on the energy balance since it increases heat losses. In this work, experimental measurements and numerical simulations are performed to study the effect gas flow rate on the formation of the open‐eye in a steelmaking ladle. A one‐fifth scale water model is constructed for studying gas injection with single and dual plug configurations. For the numerical modeling, the Multiphase Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used for simulating the system including the behavior of the slag layer. The physical modeling results show that the open‐eye area changes from 9.22 to 198.34 cm2 when the gas flow rate varies from 0.75 to 15 SLM using a single plug. The effect of the number of plugs on the open‐eye area for the same range of flow rates mentioned above is also studied. The two open‐eye areas generated due to the gas injected through the dual plugs change from 37.59 to 231.1 cm2 when the gas flow rate is increased from 0.75 to 7.5 SLM for each plug in the physical modeling. The numerical simulation results of the open‐eye area are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from the water model. During the gas stirring process, the slag layer is deformed such that the thickness of the slag becomes thick near to the wall and thin near the slag eye at high gas flow rates. In dual plug system, the two open‐eyes tends to merge and form a huge open‐eye at high flow rates that suits for better alloying purposes. The high‐flow velocity near the surface, which could damage the ladle refractory, tends to be reduced in dual plug system when compared to single plug system.

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Series: Steel research international
ISSN: 1611-3683
ISSN-E: 1869-344X
ISSN-L: 1611-3683
Volume: 90
Issue: 2
Article number: 1800365
DOI: 10.1002/srin.201800365
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: The authors are grateful for the financial support of the European Commission under grant number 675715‐MIMESIS − H2020‐MSCA‐ITN‐2015, which is part of the Marie Sklodowska‐Curie Actions Innovative Training Networks European Industrial Doctorate Programme. Furthermore, the Finnish Cultural Foundation is acknowledged for their financial support.
EU Grant Number: (675715) MIMESIS - Mathematics and Materials Science for Steel Production and Manufacturing
Copyright information: © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.