University of Oulu

Siiri-Liisi Kraav, Tommi Tolmunen, Olli Kärkkäinen, Anu Ruusunen, Heimo Viinamäki, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Minna Valkonen-Korhonen, Kirsi Honkalampi, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Soili M. Lehto, Decreased serum total cholesterol is associated with a history of childhood physical violence in depressed outpatients, Psychiatry Research, Volume 272, 2019, Pages 326-333, ISSN 0165-1781,

Decreased serum total cholesterol is associated with a history of childhood physical violence in depressed outpatients

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Author: Kraav, Siiri-Liisi1; Tolmunen, Tommi1,2; Kärkkäinen, Olli3;
Organizations: 1Institute of Clinical Medicine / Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
2Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
3Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
4Deakin University, Food & Mood Centre, IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia
5Primary Health Care Unit, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
6Departments of Psychiatry: South-Savonia Hospital District, Mikkeli; North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu; SOTE, Iisalmi; Lapland Hospital District, Rovaniemi, Finland
7Department of Education and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland
8Research Unit of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology & Biocenter of Oulu, University of Oulu, Medical Research Center (MRC), University of Oulu, and University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
9Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland
10Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2019
Publish Date: 2020-02-28


Associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cholesterol in depressed patients are unclear. Therefore, we compared 78 adult outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 24) or without (n = 54) experiences of physical violence in childhood. Background data were collected with questionnaires, and total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured from fasting blood samples. Patients with a history of childhood physical violence had lower levels of TC than the control group. No differences were observed in HDL-C, LDL-C, or low-grade inflammation levels between the two groups. In multivariate models, decreased levels of TC were associated with childhood physical violence, and these associations remained significant after adjustments for age, gender, lifestyle, metabolic condition, socioeconomic situation, psychiatric status, suicidality, low-grade inflammation, the chronicity of depression, medications used and somatic diseases. At the 8-month follow-up, the results were essentially the same when the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) was used as the measure of ACEs. The specific mechanisms underlying cholesterol alterations associated with ACEs are a topic for future studies. Better understanding of these mechanisms might lead to possible new interventions in the prevention of adverse health effects resulting from ACEs.

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Series: Psychiatry research
ISSN: 0165-1781
ISSN-E: 1872-7123
ISSN-L: 0165-1781
Pages: 326 - 333
DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.108
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: During writing this article Siiri-Liisi Kraav received funding from Juho Vainio Foundation and Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation.
Copyright information: © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license